Clockwise rotation small engine

Fuel Pump Problems, Fuel Supply Issues

2023.06.07 04:29 Cheeky-Monkey-Tees Fuel Pump Problems, Fuel Supply Issues

Fuel Pump Problems, Fuel Supply Issues
I have a riding mower that uses a fuel pump like the one pictured, these same pumps are all types of small engines and even some outboards. I'm tired of repeated failures of the pulse hose and the fuel pump diaphragm due to ethanol in modern fuel. I'm thinking about replacing this mechanical pulse activate pump with an electric fuel pump. The lowest pressure electric pump I can find is 2 to 5 psi my question is what is the pressure limit for the needle and seat on a small engine carburetor? In automotive applications, you see fuel pressures anywhere from 7 psi on very old engines to 25 to 30 during the 70s and up to 60 psi on some before fuel injection took over and fuel pressures increased to over 100 psi.
https://preview.redd.it/3a81yg9lbi4b1.jpg?width=804&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1e9783f9d6397f1b71d7dff193d94aba70c6ab0a
submitted by Cheeky-Monkey-Tees to lawnmowers [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 04:28 NarutoFTW2020 Should I quit?

I hope everyone is doing well.
I am a junior structural engineer and just started my full time position at a small firm(less than a week). I am truly not enjoying it and not thrilled to be in the office and working on these projects. What makes it worse is my boss keeps mentioning my name to other higher level engineers in the office. In one conversation, I heard the engineer laugh and the other my boss was asking what I have doing and if I am being slow at completing my work. I have interned at this company for about 4 months(one day a week and sometimes missed weeks of work due to need to complete my assignments) during my last semester of undergrad. The internship was a rough experience. I started off with my boss constantly pressuring me to work more hours even though I was still in college. He thought I could crank out a whole project in a week meanwhile I had no design experience previously. He threatened to take away my full time position when I ask to reduce my hours(started the internship with 3 days a week and this was overwhelming due to the craziness of last semester of senior year).I am trying my best to work hard and yes I can be slow but I am trying to adapt and learn. My boss said that he expects for a new hire to be slow in the beginning.
Any advice is appreciated.
I apologize for any grammar or spelling errors, wrote this very quickly on my smartphone
submitted by NarutoFTW2020 to StructuralEngineering [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 04:23 WWJewMediaConspiracy PSA - if you still have an N95 mask it helps a ton w the smoke. Also lots of subway stations have much worse air quality than outside RN

Got back from a run and the worst part was taking the mask off and smelling the gradual ~1.5 hour buildup of Canadian smoke on myself 🤢.
Also if you think it's gross out (it is) YSK that lots of subway stations are significantly grosser (the kinda smoky beam of light from the train headlights comes from small particles not great for your lungs). See https://c2smart.engineering.nyu.edu/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-the-air-quality-in-the-nyc-subway-system/ and other articles, but there's a decent case for wearing a high quality mask on the platforms. I still wear a mask underground bc of this despite not caring about COVID at all anymore.
submitted by WWJewMediaConspiracy to nyc [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:59 NeonScarredSkyline BR A4 4-6-2 'Sir Nigel Gresley'

BR A4 4-6-2 'Sir Nigel Gresley'
There are a handful of pieces missing that need to be force-fit (not egregiously - we're talking like a quarter of a millimeter offset here), as well as 2 custom parts absent (going to use tiny custom triangles to fill in those gaps where the firebox angles down to the frame; will use the glued 2569 antenna technique to get small-diameter handrails). And, obviously, some stickers would be required. The entire pilot assembly is designed to swing, with roughly 11 degrees of play either way. That's not great, but a lot of people have engines that are limited to larger radius curves.
I'm most please with the front. The A4s have this weird profile where the nose doesn't just slope inwards as it goes to the rear, but features very delicate up and outwards lateral flare. Obviously, a perfect 1-for-1 isn't achievable in Lego, but I feel like this is pretty close (with minimum gaps). And, finally, neither blue nor dark blue really quite match British Railways Blue, but I think dark blue is the nearer of the two (the real color is slightly more saturated, and probably one shade lighter).
submitted by NeonScarredSkyline to LEGOtrains [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:55 exclamationmarkk Public Holidays and shifts

Hi I just started a rotating small animal intership in Australia.
I work a 4 day work week with each day being 10hr. My schedule is always changing and I don't have definitive days on both my referral rotations and emergency shifts. I more or less know what days I'm working a month or so in advance.
In an upcoming week I am scheduled to work Thursday to Sunday (4 days) and the Monday June 12 that same week is a public holiday. Does this mean I do not get any entitlements from that despite being a full time employee?
I've been told essentially if I am not scheduled to work that public holiday then I don't get any pay from it or day off and continue to work the same 4 day work week. But if I were scheduled on it for ECC I'd get penalty rates and if scheduled on it for referral rotations I'd get paid but have the day off (working 3 days that week instead of 4).
In my mind if I never get scheduled on a public holiday for ECC (therefore never getting penalty rates) or if I never have my normal working days on my referral rotation being on a public holiday - I essentially get nothing from public holidays in terms of a day off with pay compared to a person who works a normal Monday to Friday working week.
Just wondering how it works in anyone else's experience and if this is just the norm?
submitted by exclamationmarkk to veterinaryprofession [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:53 mst3333k12758931 Wen Loong's Hustles/Talents (WIP)

Running list of hustles: Panda rider, locum nurse, chef, engineer, options trader, digital marketing, family business deputy CEO, boba seller, republic motors co-owner, tuition teacher, security guard, cigar company, tub trader Running list of talents: Singing, acting, playing boards, self-promotion/marketing, playing people's mother, hiding behind mother, lying, no-showing, flaunting fake goods, flaunting other people's goods, flaunting business cards, abusing his friend, hating women, posting his small dick, slander, hiding behind police, not understanding how search works, not understanding the difference between a programming language and software package, doing Pathlight maths, doing engineering maths
submitted by mst3333k12758931 to wen_loong [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:52 boomerandzapper Comprehensive List of "Small Family Run Hidden Gems" in Vancouver

Background

I've been compiling a list of "hidden gems" in the back of my mind for a while now. There are many "hidden gems" in Vancouver. To cover them all would be a whole book. To make things easier for a post I created a stricter set of criteria.
 
The purpose of this post is not only to share but also to uncover more "small family run hidden gems". There are many places that almost make it which I added to the Honorable Mentions section.

What constitutes a small family run hidden gem?

A tiny to small restaurant that's family and serves amazing food or beverages. These are the places that people who've been recommend to out of town guests. You go "wow" when you first discover the place.
 
The hidden part is covered by collecting data on posts/comments to verify the "hidden aspect". Although just because a business has low Reddit exposure, many of these places are well known in specific communities.

Detailed Criteria:

  1. Small: Under ~10 tables, Ideally ~2 tables. Exceptions for Food Court Stalls
  2. Family Run: Owner or a family member is always present. Bonus for family-run businesses with no employees.
  3. Hidden (On Reddit): Under 40 comments where a post is worth 5 comments.
  4. Gem: Arguably the best place to get a certain dish/cuisine in Metro Vancouver

The List:

Name Rough Area Cuisine Known For (* = other things also good) Comments Posts Reddit Exposure
Nine Ninety Richmond Chinese (Wuhan/Food Court) Spicy Dry Noodles* 1 0 1
Adam's Crepes North Burnaby French Crepes 1 1 6
Feast and Fallow Oakridge Cafe (Plant Based) Coffee* 2 0 2
Lao Cai West Vancouver Chinese (Xi'an) Dry Cumin Lamb Noodles* 2 0 2
Lully's Food Truck Langley American Hot Dogs 4 1 9
Excellent Tofu Richmond Chinese (Dessert) Tofu Pudding 6 0 6
Gateau de Henry Kitsilano Cakes Cakes* 8 1 13
Oide East Van Cafe Coffee Rotation 8 1 13
Tama Organic Mart Burnaby Japanese (Grocery Store) Vegan Bento 8 1 13
Fat Boy Kitchen Victoria - Fraserview Chinese (Hong Kong) Pork Chop Rice* 9 0 9
Klasik Inasal Mount Pleasant Filipino Overall Filipino Food 10 1 15
Long's Noodle House End of Main Street Chinese (Shanghai) Soup Dumplings + Drunken Chicken* 12 3 27
Mr Japanese Curry Mount Pleasant Japanese (Curry) Japanese Curry 17 0 17
Sushi Bar Kilala North Burnaby Japanese (Sushi) Homey Sushi 18 0 18
Sashimiya Downtown Japanese (Sushi) Moderately Priced High Quality Nigiri* 20 3 35
Baby Dhal Commercial Trinidadian Dhal Puri Roti* 24 1 29
Tandoori Palace Commercial Indian/Pakistani Naan + Butter Chicken (Outside Surrey)* 26 1 31
Cafe Dang Anh Victoria - Fraserview Vietnamese (Northern) Pho Bo Tai Lan* 27 0 27
Yama Cafe East Van Japanese (Cafe) Meal Sets/Moffins (Mochi Muffins) 35 0 35
Merci Beaucoup Cafe Commercial Vietnamese (Bahn Mi) House Special Sub 38 0 38​

Honorable Mentions:

Name Rough Area Cuisine Known For (* = other things also good) Comments Posts Reddit Exposure Honorable Mention Reason
Bali Thai East Vancouver Indonesian (Food Court) Overall Indonesian Food 45 2 55 Too Well Known
Barbara Chinatown Contemporary Tasting Menu* Unknown Unknown 50+ Too Well Known (Michelin Star)
Carp Mount Pleasant Hawaiian Ahi Tuna Poke Unknown 5 50+ Too Well Known
Dragon Ball Tea House Shaughnessy Bubble Tea Fruit Slush Unknown 5 50+ Too Well Known
Hachibei Fairview Japanese (Assorted) Miso Black Cod (Often Sells Out)* 18 0 18 Owner Status Unknown
Melo Patisserie Mount Pleasant French (Cafe) Almond Croissant 14 1 19 Owner Status Unknown
Prototype Coffee East Vancouver Cafe Coffee Flight* 75 13 140 Too Well Known and Owners not always Present
Unchai Kitsilano Thai Overall Thai Food 59 10 109 Too Well Known​
 
Used this to make the tables: http://tableit.net/
submitted by boomerandzapper to vancouver [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:48 offshorewolf Hire a full time virtual assistant from Offshore Wolf for just $99 a week

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Scroll to the end to book a free discovery call.
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submitted by offshorewolf to u/offshorewolf [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:43 TheGoldenMinion Critique me to hell. It's 3:41 AM and I'm still drunk but had a strong urge to write (TW: suicide (but as a story element; this story isn't about depression/etc.))

We had reached the pier. The car’s idling engine provided a peaceful backdrop that accented the glimmering sea below the blood-red bridge, through which the sun rose. As I gently depressed the brake pedal, we glided to a soft halt. I heard her exhale loudly, as if to communicate her feelings at the moment. A long moment it was; we stared at the sight through cracked glass for what seemed like an eon-- a somber look behind both of our eyes, contrasting the vivid scenery in front. I finally turned the key in the ignition counter-clockwise, bringing the engine to rest. I caught a glimpse of red and blue in the rearview mirror, and knew we had little time. We exited the car, and stood in front of it. Her light blond hair gently swayed and glimmered in the ocean breeze. I walked around to the back of the car, and popped the trunk, revealing a case containing the two handguns. With a firearm in each hand, I made my way back to her.
I wrapped my arms around her. Then I felt her thin arms wrap around me. The moment seemed to hang in the air. Mascara-stained tears fell down her cheekbones, being skimmed from the top of a black tar that pooled at the bottom of her mind. I knew I couldn’t comprehend her outpouring of emotion- her bone and flesh insulating me from the void inside- yet I whispered words of companionship and empathy. It was the final day, a delimiter in a time that I knew I would wish to be in again. But it was nice to feel her in my arms. Melancholy washed over us both. I felt her delicate hand creep around to the back of my head, and her thin fingers softly threaded my long hair. We were interrupted by the sound of tires spinning against the loose dirt road that led to the pier. Finally, we stood next to each other, shakily pulling back the slides of our weapons. I held her left hand with my right, and my left hand held my gun to my temple. She mirrored my position. A high-pitched frequency filled my skull, drowning out any sound. I saw her mouth move out of the corner of my eye, but I couldn't discern her words amidst the noise. Finally, she squeezed my hand, and our lifetimes of running came to an end.
submitted by TheGoldenMinion to StoryWriting [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:40 AwesomeTreehouse Trying to Figure Out a Timing/Starting Issue - 92' 240, B230

Trying to Figure Out a Timing/Starting Issue - 92' 240, B230
I recently replaced my front engine seals and timing belt and, after putting everything back together, my car was starting right up and idling nicely but there was some brief hesitation when opening the throttle a little. That isn't something it used to do so I worried that the timing was maybe off by a tooth or so.
I decided to go back in to check the timing and replace the old rusty harmonic balancer while I was at it. I also replaced the spark plugs wires with nice Bougicord ones. Now, with everything lined up as it should be, the car will crank but won't start.
Here's what I've tried:
  • Triple verified that the position markers all line up after rotating the crankshaft two full rotations.
  • Tried advancing the intermediate shaft forwards and back 1-2 teeth to see if that had any effect.
  • Put the old spark plug wires back and checked the new ones for continuity.
  • Cleaned the distributor cap and rotor (which are both only 2 years old) with contact cleaner.
  • Tried setting the harmonic balancer to 10 degrees instead of 0. I did this because the old one lined up to the 10 degree mark with the engine at top dead center. I assumed the old one had shifted over time as they're known to do. This made no difference though.
I'm really not sure what the issue could be and what else to try. I thought that lining the camshaft, intermediate shaft, and crankshaft up with their respective marks should be all I need to worry about as far as timing. Especially since a 92' has ignition timing adjusted by the ECU.
Any ideas?
Harmonic balancer at the 0 degree position.
Crankshaft with the harmonic balancer removed. Note the keyway and notch lining up to the mark on the engine.
Camshaft at top dead center.
Intermediate shaft lined up with the mark on the rear cover.
Distributor pointing towards #1.
submitted by AwesomeTreehouse to VolvoRWD [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:38 Mall_Fluid Persistent Fantasy Megagame system! Players/GMs and Interested parties welcome!

Greetings, fellow adventurers!
Are you interested in joining a collaborative discord text-based project to create an immersive and evolving mega-game? We're seeking both GMs and players for our small team working on "World Engine," a dynamic medieval fantasy world.
About "World Engine":
"World Engine" is a thrilling endeavor where we collectively shape a dynamic medieval fantasy world through player actions. Together, we'll have the opportunity to influence nations, forge alliances, and create a captivating gaming experience. The game is persistent so is up 24/7 and has a slow pace to compensate.
The Game functions through GMs like any other megagame, but with a suite of excel tracking tools powering it to help assist with the large scale and scope of the world. Development of this suite is about halfway complete. We'll be done by July we hope!
What We're Looking For:
GMs: We're seeking storytellers and world-builders who are excited to collaborate on crafting immersive narratives. Experience is appreciated but not essential. We're more interested in your enthusiasm and willingness to contribute to this exciting project.
Players: Whether you're a seasoned adventurer or new to the realm of role-playing, we invite you to join us on this creative journey. Your participation will help shape the destiny of our evolving medieval fantasy world.
If you're intrigued by this project and ready to contribute your ideas and skills, please leave a comment or send me a message. Feel free to ask any questions you may have!
submitted by Mall_Fluid to Roleplay [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:30 Direct_Charity7101 Mono tune easy gold on trial mountain endurance

Mono tune easy gold on trial mountain endurance
I was struggling and finished 2nd, 12 sec behind the leader. I noticed my tuned quarter mile time was 12.09 sec. I experimented a bit and ended up with a quarter mile time of 11.71 sec.
My lap times dropped by a second. I finished ahead by 43 sec, doing mostly 2:03's. Only one 1.5 sec penalty the whole race. I could have pushed harder but just wanted to win.
For assist settings I used TCS 3 and ABS. steering sensitivity 10. I'm an average skill driver using a controller, so if I can do it you can too!
submitted by Direct_Charity7101 to granturismo [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:23 TheSpacedGhost Moving from construction field to IT, how to boost my confidence?

So I’m moving from a construction job I’ve had for almost a decade. I got my A+ in December of 2021 and I’ve been looking for an IT job that I wouldn’t have to take a crazy massive pay cut. Well I finally found a company that’s willing to overlook my lack of experience and still consider me for interviews. I took an online aptitude test and scored good on it so I think that will help.
I do have an extensive personal background in technology just nothing professional(I have a small “side business” that I use programs like Logic Pro, Blender, several game engines to complete various projects for people, and I kind of used this to get my foot in the door with them I think). I’m just lacking a lot of confidence and I’ve been doubting myself a lot with the transition. I was going to see if any technologists on here could offer up any advice on how I can be more confident about it? I’m usually a pretty outgoing person but this has me almost jittery when I talk to someone and I feel so cripplingly nervous lol.
The position is for a Technical support administrator, I just applied for the position not expecting a call and this hiring recruiter called me and after talking for a while I expressed that I don’t have any prior experience on paper for tech work. He said normally it would be a deal breaker but he said I have my A +, I also have my associates in general studies, and he said I seems like I have a good personality for the position.
This is at a well known logistics business in my area and it’s paying a little more than what I make doing construction so I really want to land this job. I have one phone interview and after the phone interview will be an in-person interview and I’m terrified. I know I’d zero issues with the job and I would be an excellent employe, I’m just having trouble mustering up the outward confidence in myself.
submitted by TheSpacedGhost to it [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:19 One_and_Only19 Something lurks in the shadows

Just a heads up, this guy is used in a universe where hawkmoth treat crime more like a bossiness and as such akumatizes criminals and villains rather than peeved teenagers and disgruntled citizens... basically hawkmoth isn't stupid

OC details:

Name: jonathan hughes
Alias: shadow spider
Miraculous: none/ tech based hero
Symbolism: death and creation

Backstory:

Johnathan was raised by his dad as a single man, An estranged sister, and a mother who died giving birth to john, as such his dad gave him all the love that he could in the small town in the middle of kent england where his dad made hid money as an engineer before moving off to paris with john who was just 3 years old. Life took a swift turn for the best, quickly establishing his talents for weapon creation and design, johnathans father quickly folded a company called Hughes industries where he designed weapons for the parisian military, rubbing shoulders with the elites of france including the agreste's, the tsugurgi's, and the Bourgeois's leaving john to become good friends with both adrien and chloe(shes still a bitch though). All the while johnathans technological prowess also grew, he was making his own video games at 4, designing web browsers at 5, and age 6 made a military grade AI for hid own amusement called SpyDar(spy radar, also sounds like spider😁) with his dad using johnathan on occasion to help implement some of the code to his more advanced weapons. Hawkmoth had wanted johns father to supply his goons with new weaponry, when he refused.... so, at age 10 johnathan watched as hawkmoth crushed his beloved fathers head between his hands like it were a balloon forever traumatising him and essentially killing the boy as well. He since spent his days training to become as strong as possible, his evenings developing his tech to make up for his short comings, and his evening trying to find out who hawkmoth is and where to find him. He's softened up a bit over the course of those 5 years, from wraithful vengeance to a dark defender of the night having even turned his base of operations(which is a big empty warehouse) into a hostel for families who have lost everything to villain attacks, and doing what he can to protect the hurt and innocent

Appearance:

Civilian form
Jonathan is a mix between max and kim, he's tall with an athletic build though tends to wear geeky clothes, not much caring for fashion. He wears his super suit under his shirt, the black sleeves clearly visible, though wears a green comic shirt over it, making it look like a more estethical choice. He also wears brown cargo pants and plain black runners. His shield compacts down into his watch with most of his gear ready to go at a moments notice. His only bit of equipment that is missing is his helmet which is kept in his bag which he takes every where with him. His hair is a plain black with blue high lights, his skin is extraordinarily pale and his eyes are a very dark blue.
Hero form
An almost entirely black suit with a white outline marking holes in his mask, they are sharp looking eyes that are pointed to look like a permanent scowl with a thin white outline. small holes that allow him to breath through the mask (ill give him a water upgrade later) which leads into a grey chest piece that covers and created the illusion of pecs, Abs, and runs down to his crotch to protect that as well. On his chest is a large spider web that forms a semi circle, and hanging from it, a large black spider with sharp edges and somewhat realistic anatomy. On my shoulders are thick metal plating which is also present on his knees and elbows, a blue LED strip denotes wheres the endoskeleton is which is his most armoured point and is meant to draw fire, it can also be turned off either by removing his helmet or per his request. His bottom half is quite plain bar the same black runners he wears in his civilian form, shiny black metal knee guards, and blue LED that runs down the side of his legs. The shield is a mat black with a web pattern on it that has 4 lines that go through the centre and create 8 segments with 3 webs between each larger thread. The webs are white.

Personality:

Johnathan is ultimately altruistic but reserved, knowing that showing off could get him discovered as shadow spider, pretending to basically be a weak coward so no one would suspect him to be shadow spider. Quite nerdy, he's a part of multiple super hero fandoms, usually using them for inspiration for tech and techniques. Johnathan is also prone to bouts of anger where his facade will drop and he'll act more like shadow. Also as johnathan has a high pitched voice with a notable french accent.
As shadow spider he's a different person entirely, even his voice becomes much lower, slightly gravely and distinctly english. His altruistic nature subsides somewhat and has little compassion for criminals and villains, often brutalising them so badly that without immediate medical attention they'd likely die of their injuries. With that being said, he'll only do that to someone who has taken a life, if you didn't understand the weight of you're actions, or you were otherwise justified in his eyes then he will put his life in the line to save yours.

Powers/abilities:

Web generation
Through the use of specialised gauntlets he is able to generate a strong web like substance which is also used for transportation and through the use of various nozzles can be adjusted suit any given need.
Spiked gloves/soles
Through specialised tech his shoes and gloves can produce extremely sharp claws which can be used in combat, but are primarily used to climb walls and other surfaces. These claws also have small injectors that allow him to inject a villain with a neurotoxin that causes paralysis for 24 hours.
Parkour
Jonathan is adept at utilising his environment in order to maximise his mobility options, able to beat an olympian in a race across paris due to his parkour prowess this is just to give him reason to be able to be able move that quickly)
Exoskeleton
A lightweights exoskeleton hidden beneath his suit allows for super human strength feats, up to roughly 3x peak human strength, though only about half as strong as a miraculous holder, also allows for super speed whilst running, hits like a truck, and 5 meter high jumps
SpyDar
An ai that jonathan developed to help analyse his environment including xray vision, internet access, telecommunications access, hacking and many other abilities. He formed his hero identity after his SpyDar systems.
Tech wizard
He's good with computers
Titanum weave suit
Though not impervious to damage jonathan is still able to take hits from your average akuma victim and keep fighting. This weave is light and breathable, though some areas are clearly better armoured including the full metal face shell, the knee and elbow pads, and thicker padding around the chest area.
Repulse canon/ explosive shield
And finally jonathan's shield, though it is made from the same titanium as his face shell it has a web pattern 'engraved' on it. Though these engravings are in fact outlets for a repulse canon which is strong enough to knock down a brick wall without having to use his main suits power supply. Along its edges are another outlet except this one for c4, allowing jonathan a chance against akuma victims with real fire power. The back is also equipt with some smaller devices including trackers, additional cameras to scope an area out more effectively, web grenades, audio lures and an electromagnet to both summon the shield when needed and attach it to his arm or back. It also has small spikes that can inject a neurotoxin into his opponents that will paralysise them for the nest 24 hours

Weaknesses:

Low battery
If jonathan's shield runs out of power he can still carry it around with him, however if his suit does the same then not only does he loose his powers but he's now weighed down and essentialy trapped inside of a metal tomb during a fight
Emp blasts
See above
Fatigue
Jonathan is only human without any additional powers and general combat will slow him down quickly and leave him tired and unable to operate
Being hacked
A simple computer virus is enough to stop most of his powers except for the endoskeleton and web shooters, beyond that he is helpless afterwards
Hand to hand combat
Jonathan knows very little about combat and relies on his gear and environment to neutralise an opponent, getting up close and personal is a great way to deal with him.
submitted by One_and_Only19 to MLBRoleplay [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:11 lets-split-up I went on a cruise, and found the source of the rotting smell…

Imagine walking into a burning building, and everyone laughs and tells you the fire’s all in your head. When no one believes you, are you going to stay to burn up with them? Every passenger in that crowd waiting to embark on the luxury cruise was already dead—they just didn’t know it yet! I stared through the windows of the terminal at the magnificent Seastar, at the broken glass and spatters of blood that only I could see… and then I fled.
Without warning a single soul.
What would have been the point? My name is Cassandra—I see death six days before it happens, and can feel it if I shake a cold hand—but no matter what I do, I can never, ever prevent it.
My flight took me as far as the escalators before a flash of purple brought me screeching to a halt. Lily Tsuki? No—it wasn’t the purple-haired musician who’d given me with cruise gift card. But suddenly I remembered how I’d been looking forward to hearing her performance aboard this very vessel…
Oh God…
It was one thing to turn my back on doomed strangers. Terrible as it sounds, it’s a bit like reading about a catastrophe in the news. Quite another thing to abandon somebody I knew! Could I really leave her to become one of the bodies putrefying in the belly of the Seastar? Every time I ordered a drink at my favorite bar, I’d remember I hadn’t even tried to save her!
“Fuck!” I cried, fumbling for my phone. “Oh, fuck me sideways… how much time…?”
Ninety minutes.
Ninety minutes to get on board, find the musician, and… what? Convince her to disembark?
How?
And yet my feet were already turning toward the gangplank—because as it turns out, I would rather plunge headlong into a ship full of the rotting dead than face an empty piano bench and the guilt that no amount of alcohol would ever drown. But to have any chance at persuading Lily, I’d need to know how the passengers died. This meant that in addition to finding a purple-haired needle in a Titanic-sized haystack, a horrifying task loomed ahead of me. I was going to have to do something I had not done in a very long time—plunge directly into my vision. Walk into its very maw and face whatever gruesome horrors lurked at the source of that nauseating odor.
I was going to have to find the bodies…
… and whatever killed them.
Boarding
The stench was so overpowering after crossing the gangplank that I dropped to my knees and dry heaved. The flow of passengers moved around me past the concierge desk. I must have looked exceptionally sick, because a pretty girl in a suit skirt approached, asking if I needed assistance. She reached out a hand to help me up—cold!
I staggered away from her and inside. Then—because I felt I might throw up—quickly found my way out to the promenade deck and the blessed breeze.
Lifeboats hung overhead. Beyond the rail, the sea sparkled in the afternoon sun. Cushioned loungers lined the deck. None were in use, presumably because the pool, patio, spa, and other amenities on the upper decks had much more attractive areas for lounging. I leaned against the rail and gulped the air, listening to the waves splash against the side of the boat, noting blood spatters further down—but nothing signifying the cause of the blood. Just vague signs of violence.
After circling the entire promenade deck and spotting only the occasional bloody spatters, I gritted my teeth, pulled my shirt collar up over my nose, and plunged into the nearest door.
The Seastar’s interior had the atmosphere of a luxury hotel. People milled about the restaurant and shopping area, buzzing with excitement, talking about cabaret shows and fine dining, while perky crew members answered questions, all perfectly oblivious to the putrid sweet rotting stench. I’d most likely find Lily Tsuki at the piano lounge, but since I didn’t yet have any plausible explanation for what had happened to the passengers, I continued wandering, entering a bustling café overlooking the ship’s grand staircase. Stepping over an enormous blood stain on the carpet, I passed the counter, nauseated by the fancy pastries behind their glass cases, peering among the tables and chairs. Paused when I spotted an eyeball in a teacup. No trace of how it got there. No body with an empty socket. Just the eyeball, swirling in a congealed bloody jelly at the bottom of the cup…
I scurried away, snatching a cloth napkin to cover my nose.
The interior darkened as I ascended the central staircase. No electricity, I noted as I clutched the railing. Why would the power be cut? A storm?
But storms don’t scoop out eyeballs with a dessert spoon….
Coming onto deck 6, I peered down a long, dim corridor lined with passenger cabins. To passengers coming and going, the hall was illuminated by electric lighting—but since I was seeing the ship six days in the future, the narrow hallway vanished into blackness. With no way to enter the cabins, and nothing much to see here or in the other dimmed halls of the passenger decks, I ascended until I reached the pool.
Pool Deck
Deck 9 opened to wide panoramic windows, dining, a spa, and of course the pool. I emerged outdoors with relief, removing the napkin from my nose as the sea breeze gave some respite from the odor.
Around me, people partied in bikinis and beachwear and suits, sipping all manner of drinks around the sky-blue swimming pool. A young woman stretched on a blood-spattered lounger, oblivious to the gore beneath her tanned figure. A few bodies floated among the swimmers, bloated and discolored. My vision shimmered briefly as a teen boy swam right through one of the bodies, splashing as if it were not there. My heart lurched when I realized that it was his own, albeit dressed in different clothes—
Oof!” I grunted as a small figure bashed into me, her arm grazing mine.
“Sorry!” cried a little girl in a pink swimsuit, bolting by as her mother yelled at her to watch out for people.
I tried not to think of how cold the little girl’s arm felt. Counted the bodies: eight in the pool. One by the towel bin, head caved in. I made a circuit of the pool, occasionally brushing against people—cold, cold, cold.
No survivors, it seemed.
But why?
That was when I spotted a shirtless old man sitting at a table under an umbrella. I froze, goosebumps prickling along my skin. Unlike the floaters, there was no obvious reason for his death. His back was to me, the bare skin of his shoulders gray and blotchy. In his hand he held a broken drinking glass. He was positioned in repose… so what killed him?
My heart quickened as I moved round to the front of him.
His mouth hung open, shards of glass and a mangled tongue lolling out, crimson trailing down his shirt front. The source of the chewed glass was obvious—the cup in his hand was broken, its jagged edges bloody.
He’d died choking on the glass.
“What the fuck is happening here?” I whispered.
Forward Stairwell
The jogging track and the sundeck—decks 10 and 11—offered a stunning bird’s eye of the pool and ocean, but I did not stop to take this in as I circled to the bow, opting to take the forward stairs down, rather than central.
The stench hit me like a cloud.
I had to stop as I descended into the dim stairwell, clinging to the railing, doubled over, gagging. It was so so bad. My eyes watered. My stomach bucked. And it was dark. Thank God for my phone’s flashlight. I fumbled it on and, napkin firmly over my nose, plunged down into the depths… The phone’s thin illumination flashed along the carpeted stairwell and the hall of the first of the passenger decks. I kept descending. Paused at an unidentifiable slick red mound. I was examining it under my light when a crewmember jogged up to me and asked, “Lose something, miss?” “Just my marbles,” I muttered, shooing the crew member away and inadvertently brushing his hand. Cold. I turned my attention back to the mound.
A slimy pile of intestines on the stairwell… trailing down to a disemboweled body.
Intestines… eyeballs… eating broken glass… nothing about this makes sense! I swiveled the beam to check further downward.
That was when I found the source of the odor.
My path down was obstructed by a mass of bodies. The ones underneath seemed to have been trampled, but the ones on top… I squeezed my watering eyes and retched against the wall. Some of the bodies bore horrible mutilations—fingers bent and twisted, joints out of alignment, faces smashed in and jaws torn open. Many more appeared to have been crushed in the press of bodies. Best guess, there was a wave of panicked people rushing upstairs from below, colliding with a wave of others fleeing down from above.
Why this staircase? What was near this part of the ship?
The cabaret lounge, I realized. No electricity. No elevators. This was the nearest stairwell to the auditorium.
Closer. I was inching closer to uncovering the fates of the passengers. And yet, I still had no idea what the passengers were fleeing from. Who were the attackers? Or… I thought of the eyeball. The glass chewed and swallowed.
An icy pinprick at the base of my skull whispered the question I didn’t want to ask…
Why? Why did some of the passengers go mad, and do it to themselves?
Piano Bar
I took the long way round to the cabaret theatre, going all the way back up the stairs and coming down on the central staircase, only to detour on hearing the notes of a piano. I found myself in a cozy lounge and spotted a purple-haired figure at the keys. And just in time—the ship was due to depart in less than half an hour!
“Lily!” I rushed over.
The musician’s face lit. “Oh it’s you, friend! You made it!”
“You’ve got to get off the ship!”
“Off the—”
“I know it seems crazy but you’ve got to! Everyone on board is going to die—I’ve seen it because I’m psycho!” I heard it a second later and smacked my forehead. “I mean—psychic! PSYCHIC!! I can see the future.” At her scrunched eyebrows, I burst, “Look I know how I sound, but I’ve been able to see things since I was a little girl, and I am telling you that this ship is going to go dark! The engines will cut out! People are going to flee and trample each other on that forward staircase…” Launching into a rapid-fire recounting, I was just getting to the eyeball in the teacup when she interrupted:
“You’re afraid of some sort of terrorist attack?”
“No, no! No! It’s almost like… a kind of madness, a contagion, that spreads through the ship—”
“A zombie apocalypse?”
“Not zombies…”
“Poltergeists? Possession?” She played a riff from a horror movie. “Should we call an exorcist?”
“We should leave!” I checked my phone. “Quickly!—"
“What an odd duck you are! I can’t imagine any sort of catastrophe as big as you’re saying. You know this ship has tons of safety protocols. And even if I did believe some disaster were drawing near—do you really think I could abandon crowds and crew?” She looked at me over her glasses, shimmering purple lips curving in a smile. “Listen friend, if this were the Titanic and I was the only one who could see the iceberg, I’d stay to steer us right, not run off leaving everyone to die!”
Icy fingers raked along my spine. Even if she wasn’t taking me seriously, she was right—I did have a moral obligation to save people. An obligation I’d been trying to fulfill ever since I was a little girl, until the attempt killed my brother, and even after, I kept trying for years and years…. until at last I realized that there is no way to change anything. That is why I call myself Cassandra. For the Greek prophet doomed to predict the future but never be believed. Try and prevent what I’ve foreseen? You might as well try and pluck the stars from the sky!
Every hand I’d touched was cold. Everyone on board would die.
My fists balled, fingernails digging so hard into my palms they bled. “You really have no idea what you’re asking of me…”
“Oh, I’m not telling you to stay. I’m just explaining why I have to. Besides, I’m under contract.” She winked and focused on her playing as guests entered and sat at nearby tables.
She had no idea! None whatsoever! If I thought there was even a sliver of a hope, I wouldn’t abandon people! Oh, if this happy-go-lucky musician understood the futility!!
But she will, came another, darker thought. She will know the full depth of the horror coming…
“No,” I whispered.
“Huh?” She shouted, “Wait—friend, where are you going?”
But I was not listening. The cabaret theatre—was the answer there? The reason for the crush of bodies in the forward stairwell? I rushed past the cafe with the eyeball in the teacup, through the grand doors into the cabaret hall—
—but the cabaret hall was surprisingly quiet, save for a light touch of classical music. A few passengers mingled here or there, unnoticing of the cadavers draped on chairs and tables. The stage itself was pristine, the wood smooth and polished in the fading orange light through the windows. Apparently, the origin of the panicked flight up the forward stairwell was not this grand entertainment venue—nothing here supported that theory.
Nonetheless, I gave the place a thorough search until my phone’s battery ran low, and then I returned to the grand staircase.
In one direction lay passenger cabins. In the other, the gangplank back to the port terminal and safety.
“It’s not too late to be a coward, Cass,” I said. “Run from the ship, run from the empty piano bench at the bar, find a different, cheaper hole in the wall to crawl into like—like the cockroach you are…”
Always the survivor, eh…?
Or… or, I could try just one more time. “‘Hope,’” my brother always said, “is the thing with feathers.”
And look what happened to him! flashed through my mind. My heart slammed against my ribcage. I’d just die too, unless I left in the next—how many minutes? I checked my phone, but it was dead. Like I would be if I stayed.
A horn sounded the Seastar’s departure. A distant cheer rose up from the upper decks and balconies. I felt a brief panicky impulse to run back out on deck and throw myself off the ship… but in truth, my fate had already been decided before the ship’s horn blew. I hadn’t been paying attention earlier, but I’d been rubbing and rubbing my hands, and finally realized they were cold. Probably had been since I’d boarded. I shuffled leaden feet toward the passenger cabins, guided by my phone’s light to the brass number plate for 4044—my cabin. Reached for the knob and stopped.
That smell—dread squeezed my intestines like a wet rag.
Smoke. Burnt meat.
I wrinkled my nose and opened the door.
Orange rays shone through the window, the sunset so vivid it almost gave the illusion that the room was on fire. The walls and ceiling were charred. The edges of the mattress and sheets a smoldered ruin. But the worst damage was the small sofa by the coffee table. Broken bottles scattered round. And there on the sofa—
My fingers went limp on the door handle as I stared into melted sockets of a body charred beyond recognition. A dark line encircled its wrist. The blackened remnants of a charm bracelet.
My bracelet.
While the man on the pool deck swallowed glass, I would succumb to the insanity here, dousing myself in alcohol and flame—
immolating myself.
[Part 1]
submitted by lets-split-up to nosleep [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 03:02 Halpi r/UCONN Weekly Questions

Hey UCONN -
We are going to try a thing.
If you have a small question or topic, and don't think it needs a whole new post, post it here! This will be a rotating thread, posted every week. A good spot for new people to post and get some easy Karma.
submitted by Halpi to UCONN [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 02:56 Kiyomi_Raven_Misoto Icarus Sun Fall Chapter 7- War and Love

February 8, 2146, Project Chameleon HQ, Brussels, PRE
It has been a few weeks since Project Autumn has returned back to her normal life. Her days were pretty routine. She would wake up and eat breakfast. Then head to briefs and classes. Then, she would eat lunch before heading off to drills and training that left her sore and extremely fatigued. Autumn would eat dinner, shower, talk to Juliette for a few hours before falling asleep to do it all over again. The days soon became three weeks since she saw Juliette in person. Autumn’s next mission to Rio was quickly approaching. Autumn was excited about it, but what she really wanted to do was spend time with the girl that she really liked. Her training was done, and she was packing her bags for her mission. Autumn was told that she would be a part of the next gauntlet that would take place after she gets back from Rio. She was very excited about it and couldn’t wait to tell Juliette. Autumn looked at the time and saw that it was still five hours before she would normally call Juliette. She was bored, lonely, and really wanted to talk to her. Autumn wrestled with this as she packed her bags.
Agents of Chaos HQ, New York City Containment Zone, PRE
Icari raced through one of the remaining buildings of what was once an overpopulated city. Most of what was once known as New York City was destroyed during the Great War. The city was deserted and hardly anyone lived there. It became the perfect location for the headquarters for the Agents of Chaos. Icari found this out through hacking the government’s mainframe. She decided to put an end to them once and for all. Icari also wanted to know what their connection was to the Prospers. She raced floor to floor eliminating their commanders and whoever she came across. Soon, she found the last remaining members as she stalked
them in the lower parts of the building with her curved blades ready to strike. Icari cornered them ready to end the threat of the Agents of Chaos. They knew that they were out of bullets and out of time. They huddled in fear from what they perceived to be their inevitable demise.
“Wait! Please, don’t kill us.” Agent 1 said with fear in their voice.
Icari was shocked and amused as she stopped and said, “Wait…what? Why shouldn’t I?”
“Be…because we are extremely sorry for all of the stuff that we have done.” Agent 1 replied.
Icari scoffed and started to move closer to them. She suddenly froze when she received a notice of an incoming call. Icari smiled when she saw that it was from Project Autumn.
Icari looked at the Agents and said, “Hey, can you all give me some time. I really need to answer this call.” Icari answered the call with a French accent. “Hello, Mademoiselle Autumn. Is everything alright?”
“Did. Did she just put us on hold?” Agent 1 asked.
“I know right and what’s up with the French accent?” Agent 2 replied.
Icari glared at the agents and put a finger to her lips to silence them. They quickly covered their mouths with their hands with fear in their eyes.
Autumn replied, “Hi, Juliette. It is so good to hear your voice. Yes, everything is fine. I am packing for my mission to Rio. I was bored and lonely. I started to think about you and how much I really miss you.”
Icari smiled as she sat down on a desk facing the agents and said. “Aww. That is sweet of you to say. I have been thinking about you too.”
Autumn said, “I hope that I am not bothering you or anything. Are you busy right now?”
Icari replied, “No, not at all. I was taking care of something easy, but it can wait.”
Autumn quickly replied, “Are you sure? We can talk later if you want.”
Icari smiled and said, “No, it’s okay. I am sure that we can talk now.”
Meanwhile, the remaining Agents of Chaos began to argue with one another about what they
should do. Icari could hear their bickering and became extremely annoyed with everything that they were saying. She stood up and glared at them.
Icari counted the remaining agents, sighed, and said, “Autumn, give me a moment, please. It should take me… about thirty seconds to finish this simple task.”
Autumn replied, “Umm…sure. Take your time. I will be here when you are done. Please don’t take too long.”
Icari smiled and said, “Thank you, Mademoiselle. I promise not to keep you waiting long.”
Icari lunged at the remaining agents as they backed away in horror. Fifteen seconds later, Icari had taken care of the last remaining Agent of Chaos. She picked up a cloth and cleaned her daggers. Icari put them away before she pulled out a black disc out of her pocket. She headed towards their command center.
Icari asked, “Autumn, are you still with me?”
Autumn quickly replied, “Yes, yes. I am still here.”
Icari smiled as she put the disc on the main computer’s case and pushed a button as lights began to light up clockwise. She smiled and said, “Thank you for waiting.”
Autumn smiled and replied, “You’re welcome. I would have waited longer.” Autumn teased as she continued. “But… I guess the issue wasn’t as difficult as you thought.”
Icari laughed and said as she left the command center, “Sorry, I suppose I overestimated how difficult the issue would be.”
Autumn laughed and said, “I guess that I wouldn’t know, but the reason that I called you earlier than normal is I have news that I couldn’t wait to tell you at our normal time.”
Icari picked up a bag as she headed down the stairs to the basement where the building’s support beams were located. Icari said, “News? I appreciate you calling me to give us more time to talk, but what is the news?”
Autumn replied as Icari put small boxes with tubes filled with a green and yellow substance on the support beams and flipped a switch, “Yes, I was told earlier today, that after I get back from the mission to Rio, I will take part in the next gauntlet to decide who I may get paired with. What do you think?”
Icari was shocked and froze when she heard the news. She became scared that it would become a lot more difficult for her to see Autumn. Many feelings and thoughts ran through her head.
Autumn became concerned and asked, “Juliette, are you still there?”
Icari shook her head and replied, “Sorry, to make you concerned, and I am happy for you. Are you excited about your mission to Rio?”
Icari threw the empty bag aside after she placed the last box. She started to head back up the steps to the command center.
Autumn was excited as she replied, “I am super excited to be going for a couple weeks. They said that I deserve it from all of the stuff that I have dealt with lately. It will be two weeks of nothing but swimming and relaxing in the summer air.” Autumn became nervous as she continued. “B-but I- I w-wish that you could be there. It would be my first Valentine’s Day spending it with someone that I really like.”
Icari saw that all of the lights were lit green as she retrieved the black disc. She smiled and said, “Well. Mademoiselle, I may be able to make your wish come true.”
Autumn was shocked as she said, “Really? Tell me you aren’t joking or teasing me. Are you being serious?”
Icari had walked down the stairs to a door that led to an alley. She smiled and replied, “I would not joke or tease you to turn around and break your heart. I cannot make any promises, but I will make sure that I will do my best to help your wish come true.”
Icari walked out the door and pushed a button on her wrist. Suddenly, a black and red motorcycle appeared in the shadows with a black and red helmet with cat ears on it.
Autumn was sad as she said, “I understand. I thought that it would be a great time spending the two weeks with you instead of alone by myself.”
Icari sat on the motorcycle and put on the helmet. The sun started to peek in the east sky. She started
up the motorcycle as she replied, “Do not be sad, Autumn. I promise you that you will have my answer by the time that you land in Rio. You might be surprised by what I can do in such a short period of time.”
Icari pushed a button on her motorcycle as she drove off and disappeared from site. She pushed another button that caused an explosion behind her, and the building collapsed into dust.
Autumn blushed and said, “I believe you and look forward to your answer. Listen, I have to finish packing, eat dinner, and shower. Can I call you later?”
Icari smiled as she replied, “I understand, and you can call me whenever you like. I look forward to talking to you soon, Mademoiselle Autumn.”
Autumn said, “I look forward to talking to you soon too, Juliette. Bye for now.”
Icari said, “Bye for now.” There was a small click. Icari sighed before she continued. “Watcher, are you there?”
Watcher scoffed. “Yes, I am here. Are you done flirting with your girlfriend?” Watcher said annoyed.
Icari snapped back, “I wasn’t flirting with her, and she isn’t my girlfriend. Listen. When I get back to the safe house, I will be uploading the files that I uploaded from the Agents of Chaos mainframe. I need you to decipher the files to see if they were working for the Prospers and any other useful information.”
“Anything else?” Watcher asked.
Icari replied, “Yes, I need you to immediately hack into the system and book a flight for me from Harrisburg to Rio De Janeiro. I need a limousine to take myself and Autumn to the harbor, where a boat will ferry us to a beach home on Paqueta Island. We will be there for two weeks. Put everything under the name Juliette Trudeau.”
“Why should I?” Watcher asked abrasively.
Icari replied, “Well, you have two choices. Either I am out of your hair for two weeks, or I make your life a living hell for the next two weeks. Then, I still book it on my own. You choose.”
“Fine. Fine. It’s not like I care if you spend time with your girlfriend or not. Everything will be taken care of by the time you make it to the safe house and upload the files.” Watcher replied.
Icari snapped back, “For the last time, she is not my girlfriend! And thank you.”
“Yeah, yeah. Don’t mention it. It is kind of nice to see you happy once more. Have fun and
remember that we have a war to win.” Watcher said kindly.
Icari smiled and said, “Yeah, I won’t forget.”
An hour and a half later, Icari pulled into the safe house in Harrisburg. She pushed a button on her motorcycle and the garage door opened. Icari pushed the button, and it closed. She pushed another button, and they became visible once more. Icari took off her helmet and placed it on her motorcycle. She walked to a wall in the garage and revealed a secret panel. Icari inputted the code, and a secret staircase was revealed. She walked down the stairs as the wall closed behind her. A room lit up as she opened the door. The computer turned on and system was running. Icari approached the computer as she took the black disc out of her pocket. She put the disc on a reader. The lights flashed on and worked in reverse. Icari received the itinerary, confirmation for the rentals, and digital tickets. As the disc was uploaded to their mainframe, Icari walks to a closet marked for Juliette. She opened up the closet and pulled out two bags already packed for her for two weeks in a summer environment. Icari closed the door. When she was done, she walked over to check the disc and saw that it was fully uploaded. Icari grabbed the bags and walked up the stairs. When she got near the top, the computer shut down, door sealed closed, and the secret door into the garage opened. After Icari had passed, the door closed and sealed shut. Icari walked into a normal home and left the bags near the front door. She cooked lunch at the same time Autumn would call her. They talked for a few hours before Autumn headed to bed. Soon, Autumn and Icari headed to their perspective airports to start their journey to Rio. Five hours and forty-five minutes later, Juliette’s plan landed at the International Airport in Rio
De Janeiro. She grabbed her carry-on bag and went to get her check in luggage. Juliette headed for the main doors and walked out into a sunny midmorning day. The air was refreshing, and it was already setting up to be a warm day. Juliette had made sure to change her appearance before she left for the airport. Juliette looked around and saw a limousine. The driver was standing outside it. He was holding a sign with Juliette Trudeau written on it in big letters. She smiled and walked over to him. The driver eyed her as she approached.
Juliette said,” Olá, eu sou Juliette Trudeau.”
The driver lowered the sign. “Olá, eu estive esperando por você, Sra. Trudeau.” The driver replied.
Juliette smiled and asked, “Can I see your sign while you put in my bags in the trunk, please?”
The driver bowed. “As you wish, Sra. Trudeau. Your guest should arrive soon from Brussels.” The driver replied as he handed over the sign and a marker.
Juliette smiled as she took the sign and marker from the driver while she said, “Obrigado.”
“De nada, Sra. Trudeau.” The driver said as he placed Juliette’s luggage in the back.
He walked to where Juliette was and took the sign and marker from her. The driver opened the door for Juliette to get in. When she was seated, he closed the door and stood outside of the limousine. Thirty minutes later, Juliette’s heart began to race as she saw Autumn walk out of the airport with her luggage in tow. Autumn had put on her glasses and looked around. She froze when she looked towards the limousine. Autumn slowly walked over to the driver.
Autumn cautiously said, “Hi, I am Project Autumn. Are you looking for me?”
The driver bowed. “Yes, I have been expecting you, Sra. Autumn. Let me put your luggage in the trunk.” The driver replied.
Autumn thought, “I never would think that Project Chameleon would have a limo waiting for me at the airport.”
Autumn replied, “Umm… sure. Thank you.”
The driver opened the door for Autumn to get in. He closed the door after she was comfortably seated in the back of the limousine. Autumn watched the driver take her stuff to the back. She was startled, and her heartbeat faster when she heard the sound of a familiar voice from inside the limousine.
Juliette smiled and said, “Hello, Mademoiselle, Autumn.”
Autumn instinctively lunged at Juliette as she turned to face her and kissed her lips. She immediately realized what she had done from the shocked look on Juliette’s face and blushed as she moved away. Juliette smiled and took Autumn’s hands into her own.
Autumn said, “Hi, and I’m sorry Juliette. I don’t know what came over me. I just got so excited that you were here.” Autumn took a deep breath before she continued. “Wh-what are you doing here?”
Juliette replied, “It’s okay. I am happy to see you too. I told you that you would have my answer by the time that you had landed here. I thought that the best way for me to give you my answer was to be here in person to give it to you.”
They heard the sound of the trunk closing and saw the driver walk down the side of the limousine to the driver’s door. He opened it, got in, closed the door, and started the engine. He pulled away from the cub and headed towards the pier.
Autumn said, “I am really glad that you brought your answer to me. When did you get here? How long will you be able to stay here?”
Juliette squeezed Autumn’s hands and smiled as she replied, “So am I. I got here around two hours before you did. If it is alright with you, I plan on being here the entire two weeks that you are.”
Autumn smiled as she said, “Yes, yes. That would be perfect for me. But…where are we headed?”
Juliette winked as she replied, “It is a secret, and you will have to find out when we get there.”
The driver drove them through town as they talked in the back of the limousine. When they arrived at the pier, The driver parked the limousine and got out. He went to the side and opened the
door. Autumn and Juliette got out and looked around. They spotted a yacht ready to go as the driver took their luggage out of the trunk. Some men came over and grabbed their luggage, and they followed them onto the yacht as the limousine pulled away. Thirty minutes later the yacht pulled away from the pier and headed towards a small island. Autumn looked around excitedly as Juliette smiled and watched her reactions. Soon, they had docked at the island. Another limousine was waiting at the pier as they got off the yacht. The same two men carried their luggage off of the yacht, and the driver put the luggage in the trunk of the limousine after Autumn and Juliette got in. They drove them a little ways until they reached an office building. Juliette got out and checked in. She came back out with their keys. The driver drove them to the beach front rental home. As Autumn got out, she was amazed. She turned to face Juliette as the driver took their luggage out of the trunk.
Juliette smiled brightly as she said, “Surprise.”
Autumn was still shocked as she asked, “Are we staying here the entire time?
Juliette nodded as she replied, “Oui, this is the rental home that I had reserved for us the two weeks. Are you surprised?”
Autumn looked at home and back at Juliette. She blushed as she replied, “Very much so. I can’t believe that you would go through all of this trouble just for me. Thank you.”
Juliette smiled and said, “It was no trouble at all to see you. You’re very welcome. Shall we go inside?”
Autumn blushed and replied, “Yes, I would like that.”
They grabbed their luggage and headed to the front door. Juliette pulled out the key cards and handed one to Autumn. She swiped the key card reader. It beeped, turned green, and an audible click could be heard signaling that it had been unlocked. They headed inside and were at awe from how beautiful everything looked. They looked around and saw two large rooms, a kitchen, patio, living room, both rooms had a bathroom, a breakfast nook, pool, jacuzzi, grill, study, and everything that someone would need. They walked back to the bedrooms.
Juliette asked, “Which room would you like to take?”
Autumn looked away and replied, “Well…I was…thinking that…that we could share…the same room, if…if you don’t mind.”
Juliette smiled and replied, “I don’t mind. I would enjoy that very much.”
Autumn smiled and said, “I would like that too.”
They picked the largest room and took their stuff in there. They put everything away and decided to change into their swimsuits. They headed to the beach and swam for a while. Autumn and Juliette grew closer through the days. They spent every day together. On Valentine’s Day, they went swimming when the sun rose. Autumn and Juliette came back and feed each other chocolates and ate chocolates. They laughed and were having fun until Juliette remembered that soon Autumn would leave for the labyrinth to run the gauntlet and became sad. Autumn noticed this and became concerned.
Autumn was concerned as she asked, “What is wrong, Juliette? Why are you so sad?”
Juliette frowned as she replied, “I just remembered that you will be going away soon for the gauntlet
where they will team you up with a new partner. Then, there will be no room for me in your…”
Juliette was shocked as she looked up at Autumn who had put her finger on her lips.
Autumn smiled warmly as she said, “No one will take your place in my heart, Juliette. I don’t care who they pair me with, but you will be the only one for me. So, do not worry about that. I will always be only yours.”
Juliette smiled and lunged forward knocking Autumn over and the chocolates onto the floor. She kissed Autumn deeply. The day past and was the best Valentine’s Day Autumn ever had. She woke up the next morning to realize that Juliette wasn’t in bed with her. Autumn could hear Juliette’s voice carrying in from the patio. She decided to see what is going on. She was sleepy as she got up, stretched and yawned as she put on a robe. She walked to the patio as she rubbed her eyes.
Juliette said, “.... Yes I... I promise that...See you...I.., you.”
Autumn smiled when she saw Juliette watching the sun rise. She was in a robe and held a cup of coffee. Autumn walked over to Juliette and hugged her from behind. She caught the smell of the coffee, the morning air, the beach, and Juliette’s hair. Juliette smiled and giggled from Autumn’s warm embrace. She leaned back into her. Then, Juliette turned around to face Autumn and handed her the mug that she was holding as she leaned against the railing. Autumn sipped coffee and smiled.
Juliette said, “Good morning. Did you sleep well?”
Autumn smiled and nodded as she replied, “Good morning. I slept very well. I woke up, and you weren’t in bed. I heard you talking to someone. Is everything okay? Who were you talking to?”
Juliette took the mug from Autumn as she replied, “I am sorry to have worried you. I am usually back in bed before you wake up. Yes, everything is fine. I was talking to Dr. Hubert like I do every morning to make sure everything is okay back at home. You know that you could always just run away with me. I know a place where they will never find us. We could start a new life together.”
Autumn smiled warmly as she said, “I am glad everything is going well back home for you. I would like that, but you know that I can’t leave. We would have to look over our shoulders for the rest of our lives on the run.”
Juliette frowned, looked at the mug, and replied, “I know, and I wouldn’t want to live on the run either.” Juliette paused before she continued. “I just have a bad feeling about this. Please, stay safe.”
Autumn put her hands on Juliette’s as she replied, “I will be safe. There is nothing to worry about. The gauntlet is completely safe, because only training rounds are allowed to tally up scores. I will call you immediately after it is over to prove that nothing happened to me.”
Juliette looked into Autumns eyes and said, “I hope that you are right.”
The rest of the time flew by and soon they headed back to the airport for their flights. Autumn left first, and Juliette left next. Juliette landed in Harrisburg International Airport. Autumn landed at Brussels. They had a quick conversation as Icari made it to the safe house. After they hung up, Icari got a phone call from Watcher.
“Hey, Icari. I hope that you had fun. I went over the files that you sent me, but I couldn’t decode them. So, I…” Watcher started to say.
There was a brief pause before a monotone girl’s voice spoke. “Hi, mommy. We need to talk.” The girl said.
submitted by Kiyomi_Raven_Misoto to CiderHype [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 02:54 itsnotgeloato Blender Archipack to Unreal Exporting Issue? Help Needed!!!

Blender Archipack to Unreal Exporting Issue? Help Needed!!!
Hi everyone!
Really new to Unreal Engine here, still learning some things.
I'm trying to make an apartment! I used Blender's Archipack plugin to create the walls, and I am using some basic assets found on Blenderkit. I exported the project as an FBX and imported into Unreal Engine.
I am currently trying to add a texture to the outer and inner walls, but for some reason the walls are not applying the texture correctly. It seems that the texture is only on the edges of the doorways, and not the whole wall. I've provided pictures in the post.
Just a small note that this is only happening to the walls I've made via the Archipack plugin. The floors and ceilings were made using a regular plane.
I've tried changing the material that was imported with the FBX, but its still not applying correctly.
Help would be very very much appreciated! Thank you!
https://preview.redd.it/67jgz1lfth4b1.png?width=1581&format=png&auto=webp&s=a9be07e5a1930c57c3804e2eb50b2160ea045028
https://preview.redd.it/q6kra2lfth4b1.png?width=1600&format=png&auto=webp&s=62d5526406c59207c3798391befe75d4fceb3cbf
https://preview.redd.it/3dz63llfth4b1.png?width=1911&format=png&auto=webp&s=e33c583bc8c05054e084f5dd56b9658f16f3106d
submitted by itsnotgeloato to unrealengine [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 02:53 efh1 I've decided to open source my research into vacuum balloons and a potentially new approach to nano foams. This information is very interesting when compared to the UFO metal sphere analysis published by Steve Colbern

I've decided to open source my research into vacuum balloons and a potentially new approach to nano foams. This information is very interesting when compared to the UFO metal sphere analysis published by Steve Colbern
I've been doing online research as well as some tinkering and was planning on building a prototype to demonstrate the first ever vacuum balloon, but I'm running into issues with expenses and time. I believe I've identified 2 approaches using well known materials that should work but one in particular that could be pulled off by a garage tinkerer with extra time and money to spare on the project.
Along the way I also started experimenting with creating foams using a technique I've basically invented as far as I can tell. I can't find any literature on it. I've gotten mixed results with it and am just not sure if it will ever work at least without being done properly in a lab setting. The approach has a lot of promise and I'll explain why.
There's a lot to go into on this subject. I've written about vacuum balloons before so if this is a new concept for you, you should give it a read.
I'm human so some of this work could have errors in it, but I have done experiments to test my theory and gotten interesting results. I have measured weight reduction in some of my designs and I have accurately predicted the results in cases where I could measure properly. That gave me a lot of hope to continue on at first but it's just a lot of work and I went way over budget early on. I can't keep pouring money into the project anymore and it hurts to say that because some of the results are so interesting. Also, life gets's busy and I can only tinker for so long.

Shapes

The best shape is a sphere because you need to withstand the atmospheric pressure outside the balloon pushing in at about 14 psi. For the same reasons we build bridges with arches, the sphere is the best shape for this because it will spread the forces out evenly. It becomes a matter of having a material that can withstand the compressive forces and in the case of non-uniformity (which to some degree is always going to be present) shear forces. Of course, the material also needs to be lightweight or it will never lift. Many sources will erroneously tell you no such material exists, but this isn't true. In theory, there are multiple materials that would probably work but the issue starts to become the total size of the balloon (and defects.) You could make it out of glass, but the balloon would have to be incredibly large and would be insanely prone to shattering and that's even if it was made defect free so there's really no point in trying normal glass. This is where choosing your materials is key so that you don't waste your time.
The volume of a sphere is V = 4/3πr^3
To calculate the buoyant force of lift at atmosphere you can simply multiply the volume by 1.29 kg/m3 and that will give you the amount it can lift in kg. Simply multiply by 2.2 for conversion to get the number in pounds. This formula was derived from the formula below.

https://preview.redd.it/56czvmdcuh4b1.png?width=516&format=png&auto=webp&s=31538f933c110d46a7d9f66af5fc8fca864bbd14
The 1.29 kg/m3 is the fluid density of atmosphere and I simply removed the acceleration of gravity to show the force in units of pure weight rather than in Newtons. It's a simple calculation and understanding it is key to helping you design the vacuum balloon.
Now that you understand how to calculate the lifting force of vacuum in a sphere you can run a bunch of numbers and see for yourself that the lifting force is very small below radius 1 and grows exponentially above radius 1. This means it will be exceptionally hard to build a working vacuum balloon below radius 1 but unfortunately there are limitations to building large structures as well. Usually you want a prototype to be simple and cheap, not experimental in and of itself. This means the first demonstrated vacuum balloon will likely be about 2 meters in diameter or about 6 feet. It also means a vacuum balloon of very large proportions would potentially have incredible lifting force.
Now that you understand the relations between size and lifting force all you need to do is calculate the volume of the envelope of the spherical balloon. This is done by simply calculating the volume of a sphere of the size of the envelope and then subtracting that by the volume of the inner void. The difference is the volume of your envelope and you can easily calculate the weight of your envelope by multiplying the density by the volume. If you do this while calculating the lifting force and plug different numbers in you can easily see how the ratio of weight to volume works. You can also see how the density influences this and even can compare the volume of different shapes if you really want to just to see how much better a sphere really is than perhaps a square.
It's very important to point out that one of my biggest lessons in building prototypes is that there can't be any defects. I originally was making hemispheres and trying to join them together before pumping down to vacuum and every time there was a failure it was at the meeting of the two hemispheres. One solid piece seems to be necessary. It's conceivable that two hemispheres can be joined and bonded to become one solid piece free of defects, but I unfortunately did not have the materials to do this. I did do some experiments and found that you can reinforce this area with lightweight bamboo if necessary. However, these were small preliminary designs and I'm not confident that would scale well.
It's worth noting that the next best shape is a cylinder with hemispheres on each end. Basically a tic tac shape. It's only worth attempting this shape if you have reasons to from a manufacturing perspective. For example, I played around with the idea of making a foam sheet and then rolling it into a cylinder before it set rather than attempting to cast a foam hemisphere. It only makes sense if you are attempting a volume too large to pull off as a sphere for practical reasons (like it would't fit in garage or won't caste evenly.) Because it still needs hemispheres it's a design best left for after demonstrating a spherical design.

Materials

I dive into the use of aerogels and xerogels in the article referenced above. The purpose of these foam materials is because when engineered properly they retain a lot of their strength but lose a lot of their weight which actually increases their strength to weight ratio and that's exactly what we need to make this work. There is no material in bulk form worth pursuing for this design. You absolutely have to use a foam material. Even if you could pull it off using glass or beryllium, it's just not practical even for demonstration purposes. During my search I found the most attractive material in the bulk to be polycarbonate. It's still not worth trying in bulk form, so I invented a way to make a foam out of it. Polycarbonate is lighter and stronger than glass. Nobody has ever made an aerogel out of it that I'm aware of. I did not image my foam because I'm not doing this work in a sophisticated lab, but I can say fairly confidently that it's about 75% porosity. That's impressive, but I suspect that a lot of the bonding is weak and there's defects, but in my defense I used an insanely primitive and low tech technique.
There are two well known foams we all have access to that in theory should work. Styrofoam and polyurethane.
I understand that may cause you to sigh in disbelief. After all, polyurethane was invented in the 1930's at IG Farben and styrofoam in the 1940's so they are not only old but very ubiquitous. I should also point out that aerogel was invented in the 1930's and was once mass produced by Monsanto. None of these materials are new.
I used the given compressive and shear strengths published by a local styrofoam manufacturer to identify some common commercial grade foams that are very light weight that should work in theory if there's no defects. I tried working with them to have some custom shapes made, but they unfortunately are limited to 4 feet for one of the dimensions of their die blocks. This is very problematic even if we knew how to fuse two styrofoam hemispheres together. I'm not going to say it's impossible, but it makes pulling it off more challenging. I did do some experiments with small 1 foot diameter styrofoam hemispheres that are commonly available and managed to measure a weight reduction before it imploded. Anybody can replicate these experiments. I expected it to fail because the thickness was less than 1 inch. I found the best design was to nest two of these styrofoam spheres within each other but with the orientations opposing so that the point of failure for the outer sphere was across the strongest points of the inner sphere. This should create a perpendicular crossing of the hemispheres of the inner and outer shells. This is also where I tried some glues. Gorilla glue works best and sure enough it's a polyurethane. I was so impressed by it that I switched over to attempting polyurethane designs for the sphere.
I found a polyurethane foam used in boating that is only 2lb/ft3 which is very impressive. It also boasts a compressive strength of 38 psi. I figure that means half an inch of this stuff would be able to handle 19 psi theoretically. That's 5 psi above the 14 psi we need for our vacuum balloon. It's not a lot of room for error, but it works in theory.
What I like about polyurethane is that you can fairly easily make custom shapes with it and DIY. I experimented with a few different techniques and can say that you need this foam to be open to the air to set properly, but it does take on conformal shapes fairly well. The best method I found to make a hemisphere out of it was to actually blow up a rubber balloon and fit that snug into a styrofoam sheet for support and then pour the polyurethane foam onto it and let it set. You can then use cutting tools to clean up the extra material. This method works, but the cutting is a pain as I did it by hand. Precision will likely be necessary to properly join the two hemispheres and I learned this the hard way when I tried to join them. A more precise way to form the hemispheres I found was to buy plastic hemispheres and coat them in wax (to make removal of the polyurethane easier.) This is far more expensive than the balloon but gives more precise results. You can find people selling these in sizes up to 6 feet but it will get pricey. It's worth mentioning that I had a hard time removing the set polyurethane from the plastic even with a wax coating (which I also verified experimentally is the least sticky thing to use) so I'm not sure it's even the best approach. I've tried reaching out to polyurethane component manufacturers but so far no response. I'm sure outsourcing this would remove a lot of headaches, but also be very expensive for such a custom piece.
Just to highlight why I think this commonly available polyurethane foam is promising I want to calculate a 1 meter radius sphere of one half inch thickness to show that it should work in theory. Of course, this means no defects including the joining of the two hemispheres which is still a problem to solve but it's possible gorilla glue and precision would solve it. Maybe a DIY'er with their own CNC may want to give it a shot.
Using the volume of sphere formula given above we see that the volume of 1 meter radius is 4.187m3. The volume of a sphere of 1 meter minus 1/2 inch is 4.0295 m3. The buoyant lift of that is 11.44 lbs. The difference in volume (to find the volume of the polyurethane used) is .1575 m3 or 5.56 ft3. At a density of 2 lbs/ft3 that gives a weight of 11 lbs of polyurethane. That's less than the 11.44 lbs of lift.
I know what you're probably thinking. How does it hold vacuum? It's true that polyurethane and styrofoam are not expected to hold vacuum (I actually did find experimentally that styrofoam does hold partial vacuum for a few hours after it's shrunk much like the LANL aerogel) but you can simply wrap the sphere in plastic to hold vacuum. I planned on experimenting with dip coatings, but for experimental purposes I came up with a very clever design that I will explain later. Just know that the plastic doesn't have to be very thick to hold vacuum so it's very much within the range of possibility to coat the sphere in a thin plastic layer at less than .44 lbs. Plastic is very dense, but we are talking about literally a few mils of material. This is also why I roll my eyes at people who mock me for attempting a design with materials that don't hold vacuum. You are not limited to materials that hold vacuum for your design when you can simply add a layer for that later.

Experimental Set Up

I initially bought one of those vacuum chambers made out of a large steel pan and thick acrylic. Mechanical pumps are easy to find and relatively cheap. Mine came with the chamber. However, I quickly found it wasn't big enough and attempting to build a larger one looked costly. This is where I got clever and shocked myself with a very cheap set up that actually works. I simply bought regular large sized vacuum bags designed for storing cloths because they have a clever little self sealing mechanism that traps the vacuum. These bags are not meant for actual vacuum with a mechanical pump so I wasn't sure how it would work. I also had to find a way to rig it all up. As funny as it sounds my solution was to take the nozzle of an empty plastic bottle that happened to fit onto the hose and then I cut a piece of EDPM rubber to cover the end meant for the bottle and put a small slit in the center for air to move through. I then pushed this into the self sealing part of the vacuum bag and it actually creates a seal and pumps down! And when you remove the pump it self seals!
I found I sometimes had issues with pumping down properly and solved this by using a metal straw that I placed inside the bag near the seal and directed towards the sphere to act as a channel. Once again, to my surprise this works very well.
So, I then disassembled my original steel pot vacuum chamber and used the parts along with some parts I had to buy online to rig the pressure gauge into the system so that I could verify how much vacuum I was achieving. I'm a bit proud of this DIY set up because it works so well.
In order to properly record your results you must weight the vacuum bag and the metal straw as well as your experimental sphere before vacuuming. Then vacuum it down and pay attention to the gauge. If your design is not very good it may implode before achieving full vacuum. That's okay. You can actually measure a weight reduction without reaching the full vacuum. "Full" vacuum in this case is actually what is known as low vacuum. Low vacuum is all you need for a vacuum balloon to work as you have effectively removed most of the air and it's not necessary to reach medium or high vacuum.
This set up was for spheres of only 1 foot diameter and I don't think there are bags large enough for 6 foot spheres. However, my plan was to use a heat gun to stitch a bunch of the bags together to make it work. It's dirty but once again it should work theoretically. I was also planning on using a heat gun to section off portions of the bag to seal it around the sphere and cut off excess material but that part is really only necessary if you are about to achieve lift. I imagine it's possible once you've proven you can make a structure strong enough and light enough for lift that a better technique would be to incorporate a valve and find a way to dip coat the sphere to seal it. I never got this far.

A Potential New Approach To Foam

I mentioned experimenting with making foams and identifying polycarbonate as good material to turn into a nano foam. I use the term nano foam because aerogel wouldn't be technically correct. They are both nano foams. The aerogel is made using gel. This approach doesn't. It's very low tech and dirty. I theorized I could use the fact that polycarbonate is a thermoplastic to my advantage and mix it as a powder with another material that can withstand it's glass transition temperature but is also easily soluble in water. So, I found some polycarbonate powder (first American apparently to buy it) and mixed it with some ordinary table salt then put it in the oven. I know this sounds ridiculous. Then I washed the sample after it cooled in the sink and dried it with paper towels. Then I soaked it in rubbing alcohol and dried that with paper towels. Then I let it sit overnight to fully evaporate if it's a big sample. Then I weighed it. When I mix the powder in a 1:1 ratio by weight the sample after washing it weights exactly half of when I started without losing any volume. So I washed out all of the salt. But, that's not all. Because this method is basically sintering the particles together, it already had lots of air pockets in it to begin with. I attempted to make a one cubic inch sample to measure the density and it's not the most precise but the density is roughly 4.7 g/in3 which is about a quarter of the density of bulk polycarbonate. This means it's porosity is about 75%. It's not he 90-99.99% of commercial aerogel, but I personally find the initial results surprising. There's a lot of ideas I have to tweak this including playing with the mix ratio, grain size, uniformity of the particles, and aerating the powder. What I find very interesting about this technique in general is that it actually would work with anything that can be sintered including other thermoplastics, ceramics, glasses and metals. This means this approach could be used to make porous metals or even metal nano foams.

The 2009 analysis of the metal sphere UFO

I've recently been made aware of the 1994 spherical UFO that Steve Colbern published a report on in 2009. A few things stand out to me as someone who has been actively working on vacuum balloons and ways to make porous metals. First, it looks like two hemispheres nested inside each other exactly as I describe was my best approach to making a vacuum balloon based off of experimental results. Second, the sphere is presumably hollow. Third, the report clearly states that the sample analyzed was a porous metal with nanostructures present. A hollow porous shell with nested hemispheres of opposing orientation is exactly what I would expect a vacuum balloon to look like. There are ways to use my technique on titanium to make it porous although I haven't done so experimentally because it's melting point is very high. Materials other than salt could be used but even if salt was used it would be interesting because it would vaporize at the glass transition temp of titanium which actually might help make it more porous. I do believe Na and Cl impurities were present in the sample according to the report. Perhaps one could experimentally recreate this sample using this method (minus the isotopes.)

Crowdsourcing

If anybody wants to crowdsource the work on this with me I'm open to it. Also, if people are open to crowdfunding the research I'm open to that as well. Either way, it's up on the internet now. Maybe 10 years from now somebody as crazy as me will pick up where I left off. I might return to this at a later date, but without help I think I need to take a break.
submitted by efh1 to UFOs [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 02:52 MrGameTheory505 What would it be if you could create a new building in Grow: Song of the Evertree? If you could also introduce a new mechanic or feature, what would you add, and how would it work?

What would it be if you could create a new building in Grow: Song of the Evertree? If you could also introduce a new mechanic or feature, what would you add, and how would it work? submitted by MrGameTheory505 to GrowSongOfTheEvertree [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 02:50 efh1 I've decided to open source my research into vacuum balloons and a potentially new approach to nano foams. This information is very interesting when compared to the UFO metal sphere analysis published by Steve Colbern

I've decided to open source my research into vacuum balloons and a potentially new approach to nano foams. This information is very interesting when compared to the UFO metal sphere analysis published by Steve Colbern
I've been doing online research as well as some tinkering and was planning on building a prototype to demonstrate the first ever vacuum balloon, but I'm running into issues with expenses and time. I believe I've identified 2 approaches using well known materials that should work but one in particular that could be pulled off by a garage tinkerer with extra time and money to spare on the project.
Along the way I also started experimenting with creating foams using a technique I've basically invented as far as I can tell. I can't find any literature on it. I've gotten mixed results with it and am just not sure if it will ever work at least without being done properly in a lab setting. The approach has a lot of promise and I'll explain why.
There's a lot to go into on this subject. I've written about vacuum balloons before so if this is a new concept for you, you should give it a read.
I'm human so some of this work could have errors in it, but I have done experiments to test my theory and gotten interesting results. I have measured weight reduction in some of my designs and I have accurately predicted the results in cases where I could measure properly. That gave me a lot of hope to continue on at first but it's just a lot of work and I went way over budget early on. I can't keep pouring money into the project anymore and it hurts to say that because some of the results are so interesting. Also, life gets's busy and I can only tinker for so long.

Shapes

The best shape is a sphere because you need to withstand the atmospheric pressure outside the balloon pushing in at about 14 psi. For the same reasons we build bridges with arches, the sphere is the best shape for this because it will spread the forces out evenly. It becomes a matter of having a material that can withstand the compressive forces and in the case of non-uniformity (which to some degree is always going to be present) shear forces. Of course, the material also needs to be lightweight or it will never lift. Many sources will erroneously tell you no such material exists, but this isn't true. In theory, there are multiple materials that would probably work but the issue starts to become the total size of the balloon (and defects.) You could make it out of glass, but the balloon would have to be incredibly large and would be insanely prone to shattering and that's even if it was made defect free so there's really no point in trying normal glass. This is where choosing your materials is key so that you don't waste your time.
The volume of a sphere is V = 4/3πr^3
To calculate the buoyant force of lift at atmosphere you can simply multiply the volume by 1.29 kg/m3 and that will give you the amount it can lift in kg. Simply multiply by 2.2 for conversion to get the number in pounds. This formula was derived from the formula below.
https://preview.redd.it/su8ya13m0h4b1.png?width=516&format=png&auto=webp&s=d7db2ab0b6678d6abc010f1a0a2cf6020633b344
The 1.29 kg/m3 is the fluid density of atmosphere and I simply removed the acceleration of gravity to show the force in units of pure weight rather than in Newtons. It's a simple calculation and understanding it is key to helping you design the vacuum balloon.
Now that you understand how to calculate the lifting force of vacuum in a sphere you can run a bunch of numbers and see for yourself that the lifting force is very small below radius 1 and grows exponentially above radius 1. This means it will be exceptionally hard to build a working vacuum balloon below radius 1 but unfortunately there are limitations to building large structures as well. Usually you want a prototype to be simple and cheap, not experimental in and of itself. This means the first demonstrated vacuum balloon will likely be about 2 meters in diameter or about 6 feet. It also means a vacuum balloon of very large proportions would potentially have incredible lifting force.
Now that you understand the relations between size and lifting force all you need to do is calculate the volume of the envelope of the spherical balloon. This is done by simply calculating the volume of a sphere of the size of the envelope and then subtracting that by the volume of the inner void. The difference is the volume of your envelope and you can easily calculate the weight of your envelope by multiplying the density by the volume. If you do this while calculating the lifting force and plug different numbers in you can easily see how the ratio of weight to volume works. You can also see how the density influences this and even can compare the volume of different shapes if you really want to just to see how much better a sphere really is than perhaps a square.
It's very important to point out that one of my biggest lessons in building prototypes is that there can't be any defects. I originally was making hemispheres and trying to join them together before pumping down to vacuum and every time there was a failure it was at the meeting of the two hemispheres. One solid piece seems to be necessary. It's conceivable that two hemispheres can be joined and bonded to become one solid piece free of defects, but I unfortunately did not have the materials to do this. I did do some experiments and found that you can reinforce this area with lightweight bamboo if necessary. However, these were small preliminary designs and I'm not confident that would scale well.
It's worth noting that the next best shape is a cylinder with hemispheres on each end. Basically a tic tac shape. It's only worth attempting this shape if you have reasons to from a manufacturing perspective. For example, I played around with the idea of making a foam sheet and then rolling it into a cylinder before it set rather than attempting to cast a foam hemisphere. It only makes sense if you are attempting a volume too large to pull off as a sphere for practical reasons (like it would't fit in garage or won't caste evenly.) Because it still needs hemispheres it's a design best left for after demonstrating a spherical design.

Materials

I dive into the use of aerogels and xerogels in the article referenced above. The purpose of these foam materials is because when engineered properly they retain a lot of their strength but lose a lot of their weight which actually increases their strength to weight ratio and that's exactly what we need to make this work. There is no material in bulk form worth pursuing for this design. You absolutely have to use a foam material. Even if you could pull it off using glass or beryllium, it's just not practical even for demonstration purposes. During my search I found the most attractive material in the bulk to be polycarbonate. It's still not worth trying in bulk form, so I invented a way to make a foam out of it. Polycarbonate is lighter and stronger than glass. Nobody has ever made an aerogel out of it that I'm aware of. I did not image my foam because I'm not doing this work in a sophisticated lab, but I can say fairly confidently that it's about 75% porosity. That's impressive, but I suspect that a lot of the bonding is weak and there's defects, but in my defense I used an insanely primitive and low tech technique.
There are two well known foams we all have access to that in theory should work. Styrofoam and polyurethane.
I understand that may cause you to sigh in disbelief. After all, polyurethane was invented in the 1930's at IG Farben and styrofoam in the 1940's so they are not only old but very ubiquitous. I should also point out that aerogel was invented in the 1930's and was once mass produced by Monsanto. None of these materials are new.
I used the given compressive and shear strengths published by a local styrofoam manufacturer to identify some common commercial grade foams that are very light weight that should work in theory if there's no defects. I tried working with them to have some custom shapes made, but they unfortunately are limited to 4 feet for one of the dimensions of their die blocks. This is very problematic even if we knew how to fuse two styrofoam hemispheres together. I'm not going to say it's impossible, but it makes pulling it off more challenging. I did do some experiments with small 1 foot diameter styrofoam hemispheres that are commonly available and managed to measure a weight reduction before it imploded. Anybody can replicate these experiments. I expected it to fail because the thickness was less than 1 inch. I found the best design was to nest two of these styrofoam spheres within each other but with the orientations opposing so that the point of failure for the outer sphere was across the strongest points of the inner sphere. This should create a perpendicular crossing of the hemispheres of the inner and outer shells. This is also where I tried some glues. Gorilla glue works best and sure enough it's a polyurethane. I was so impressed by it that I switched over to attempting polyurethane designs for the sphere.
I found a polyurethane foam used in boating that is only 2lb/ft3 which is very impressive. It also boasts a compressive strength of 38 psi. I figure that means half an inch of this stuff would be able to handle 19 psi theoretically. That's 5 psi above the 14 psi we need for our vacuum balloon. It's not a lot of room for error, but it works in theory.
What I like about polyurethane is that you can fairly easily make custom shapes with it and DIY. I experimented with a few different techniques and can say that you need this foam to be open to the air to set properly, but it does take on conformal shapes fairly well. The best method I found to make a hemisphere out of it was to actually blow up a rubber balloon and fit that snug into a styrofoam sheet for support and then pour the polyurethane foam onto it and let it set. You can then use cutting tools to clean up the extra material. This method works, but the cutting is a pain as I did it by hand. Precision will likely be necessary to properly join the two hemispheres and I learned this the hard way when I tried to join them. A more precise way to form the hemispheres I found was to buy plastic hemispheres and coat them in wax (to make removal of the polyurethane easier.) This is far more expensive than the balloon but gives more precise results. You can find people selling these in sizes up to 6 feet but it will get pricey. It's worth mentioning that I had a hard time removing the set polyurethane from the plastic even with a wax coating (which I also verified experimentally is the least sticky thing to use) so I'm not sure it's even the best approach. I've tried reaching out to polyurethane component manufacturers but so far no response. I'm sure outsourcing this would remove a lot of headaches, but also be very expensive for such a custom piece.
Just to highlight why I think this commonly available polyurethane foam is promising I want to calculate a 1 meter radius sphere of one half inch thickness to show that it should work in theory. Of course, this means no defects including the joining of the two hemispheres which is still a problem to solve but it's possible gorilla glue and precision would solve it. Maybe a DIY'er with their own CNC may want to give it a shot.
Using the volume of sphere formula given above we see that the volume of 1 meter radius is 4.187m3. The volume of a sphere of 1 meter minus 1/2 inch is 4.0295 m3. The buoyant lift of that is 11.44 lbs. The difference in volume (to find the volume of the polyurethane used) is .1575 m3 or 5.56 ft3. At a density of 2 lbs/ft3 that gives a weight of 11 lbs of polyurethane. That's less than the 11.44 lbs of lift.
I know what you're probably thinking. How does it hold vacuum? It's true that polyurethane and styrofoam are not expected to hold vacuum (I actually did find experimentally that styrofoam does hold partial vacuum for a few hours after it's shrunk much like the LANL aerogel) but you can simply wrap the sphere in plastic to hold vacuum. I planned on experimenting with dip coatings, but for experimental purposes I came up with a very clever design that I will explain later. Just know that the plastic doesn't have to be very thick to hold vacuum so it's very much within the range of possibility to coat the sphere in a thin plastic layer at less than .44 lbs. Plastic is very dense, but we are talking about literally a few mils of material. This is also why I roll my eyes at people who mock me for attempting a design with materials that don't hold vacuum. You are not limited to materials that hold vacuum for your design when you can simply add a layer for that later.

Experimental Set Up

I initially bought one of those vacuum chambers made out of a large steel pan and thick acrylic. Mechanical pumps are easy to find and relatively cheap. Mine came with the chamber. However, I quickly found it wasn't big enough and attempting to build a larger one looked costly. This is where I got clever and shocked myself with a very cheap set up that actually works. I simply bought regular large sized vacuum bags designed for storing cloths because they have a clever little self sealing mechanism that traps the vacuum. These bags are not meant for actual vacuum with a mechanical pump so I wasn't sure how it would work. I also had to find a way to rig it all up. As funny as it sounds my solution was to take the nozzle of an empty plastic bottle that happened to fit onto the hose and then I cut a piece of EDPM rubber to cover the end meant for the bottle and put a small slit in the center for air to move through. I then pushed this into the self sealing part of the vacuum bag and it actually creates a seal and pumps down! And when you remove the pump it self seals!
I found I sometimes had issues with pumping down properly and solved this by using a metal straw that I placed inside the bag near the seal and directed towards the sphere to act as a channel. Once again, to my surprise this works very well.
So, I then disassembled my original steel pot vacuum chamber and used the parts along with some parts I had to buy online to rig the pressure gauge into the system so that I could verify how much vacuum I was achieving. I'm a bit proud of this DIY set up because it works so well.
In order to properly record your results you must weight the vacuum bag and the metal straw as well as your experimental sphere before vacuuming. Then vacuum it down and pay attention to the gauge. If your design is not very good it may implode before achieving full vacuum. That's okay. You can actually measure a weight reduction without reaching the full vacuum. "Full" vacuum in this case is actually what is known as low vacuum. Low vacuum is all you need for a vacuum balloon to work as you have effectively removed most of the air and it's not necessary to reach medium or high vacuum.
This set up was for spheres of only 1 foot diameter and I don't think there are bags large enough for 6 foot spheres. However, my plan was to use a heat gun to stitch a bunch of the bags together to make it work. It's dirty but once again it should work theoretically. I was also planning on using a heat gun to section off portions of the bag to seal it around the sphere and cut off excess material but that part is really only necessary if you are about to achieve lift. I imagine it's possible once you've proven you can make a structure strong enough and light enough for lift that a better technique would be to incorporate a valve and find a way to dip coat the sphere to seal it. I never got this far.

A Potential New Approach To Foam

I mentioned experimenting with making foams and identifying polycarbonate as good material to turn into a nano foam. I use the term nano foam because aerogel wouldn't be technically correct. They are both nano foams. The aerogel is made using gel. This approach doesn't. It's very low tech and dirty. I theorized I could use the fact that polycarbonate is a thermoplastic to my advantage and mix it as a powder with another material that can withstand it's glass transition temperature but is also easily soluble in water. So, I found some polycarbonate powder (first American apparently to buy it) and mixed it with some ordinary table salt then put it in the oven. I know this sounds ridiculous. Then I washed the sample after it cooled in the sink and dried it with paper towels. Then I soaked it in rubbing alcohol and dried that with paper towels. Then I let it sit overnight to fully evaporate if it's a big sample. Then I weighed it. When I mix the powder in a 1:1 ratio by weight the sample after washing it weights exactly half of when I started without losing any volume. So I washed out all of the salt. But, that's not all. Because this method is basically sintering the particles together, it already had lots of air pockets in it to begin with. I attempted to make a one cubic inch sample to measure the density and it's not the most precise but the density is roughly 4.7 g/in3 which is about a quarter of the density of bulk polycarbonate. This means it's porosity is about 75%. It's not he 90-99.99% of commercial aerogel, but I personally find the initial results surprising. There's a lot of ideas I have to tweak this including playing with the mix ratio, grain size, uniformity of the particles, and aerating the powder. What I find very interesting about this technique in general is that it actually would work with anything that can be sintered including other thermoplastics, ceramics, glasses and metals. This means this approach could be used to make porous metals or even metal nano foams.

The 2009 analysis of the metal sphere UFO

I've recently been made aware of the 1994 spherical UFO that Steve Colbern published a report on in 2009. A few things stand out to me as someone who has been actively working on vacuum balloons and ways to make porous metals. First, it looks like two hemispheres nested inside each other exactly as I describe was my best approach to making a vacuum balloon based off of experimental results. Second, the sphere is presumably hollow. Third, the report clearly states that the sample analyzed was a porous metal with nanostructures present. A hollow porous shell with nested hemispheres of opposing orientation is exactly what I would expect a vacuum balloon to look like. There are ways to use my technique on titanium to make it porous although I haven't done so experimentally because it's melting point is very high. Materials other than salt could be used but even if salt was used it would be interesting because it would vaporize at the glass transition temp of titanium which actually might help make it more porous. I do believe Na and Cl impurities were present in the sample according to the report. Perhaps one could experimentally recreate this sample using this method (minus the isotopes.)

Crowdsourcing

If anybody wants to crowdsource the work on this with me I'm open to it. Also, if people are open to crowdfunding the research I'm open to that as well. Either way, it's up on the internet now. Maybe 10 years from now somebody as crazy as me will pick up where I left off. I might return to this at a later date, but without help I think I need to take a break.
submitted by efh1 to observingtheanomaly [link] [comments]


2023.06.07 02:50 efh1 I've decided to open source my research into vacuum balloons and a potentially new approach to nano foams. This information is very interesting when compared to the UFO metal sphere analysis published by Steve Colbern

I've decided to open source my research into vacuum balloons and a potentially new approach to nano foams. This information is very interesting when compared to the UFO metal sphere analysis published by Steve Colbern
I've been doing online research as well as some tinkering and was planning on building a prototype to demonstrate the first ever vacuum balloon, but I'm running into issues with expenses and time. I believe I've identified 2 approaches using well known materials that should work but one in particular that could be pulled off by a garage tinkerer with extra time and money to spare on the project.
Along the way I also started experimenting with creating foams using a technique I've basically invented as far as I can tell. I can't find any literature on it. I've gotten mixed results with it and am just not sure if it will ever work at least without being done properly in a lab setting. The approach has a lot of promise and I'll explain why.
There's a lot to go into on this subject. I've written about vacuum balloons before so if this is a new concept for you, you should give it a read.
I'm human so some of this work could have errors in it, but I have done experiments to test my theory and gotten interesting results. I have measured weight reduction in some of my designs and I have accurately predicted the results in cases where I could measure properly. That gave me a lot of hope to continue on at first but it's just a lot of work and I went way over budget early on. I can't keep pouring money into the project anymore and it hurts to say that because some of the results are so interesting. Also, life gets's busy and I can only tinker for so long.

Shapes

The best shape is a sphere because you need to withstand the atmospheric pressure outside the balloon pushing in at about 14 psi. For the same reasons we build bridges with arches, the sphere is the best shape for this because it will spread the forces out evenly. It becomes a matter of having a material that can withstand the compressive forces and in the case of non-uniformity (which to some degree is always going to be present) shear forces. Of course, the material also needs to be lightweight or it will never lift. Many sources will erroneously tell you no such material exists, but this isn't true. In theory, there are multiple materials that would probably work but the issue starts to become the total size of the balloon (and defects.) You could make it out of glass, but the balloon would have to be incredibly large and would be insanely prone to shattering and that's even if it was made defect free so there's really no point in trying normal glass. This is where choosing your materials is key so that you don't waste your time.
The volume of a sphere is V = 4/3πr^3
To calculate the buoyant force of lift at atmosphere you can simply multiply the volume by 1.29 kg/m3 and that will give you the amount it can lift in kg. Simply multiply by 2.2 for conversion to get the number in pounds. This formula was derived from the formula below.
https://preview.redd.it/6yf88k6uth4b1.png?width=516&format=png&auto=webp&s=0b5903bc3d27d74cc56765bcbe624c562d10cbab
The 1.29 kg/m3 is the fluid density of atmosphere and I simply removed the acceleration of gravity to show the force in units of pure weight rather than in Newtons. It's a simple calculation and understanding it is key to helping you design the vacuum balloon.
Now that you understand how to calculate the lifting force of vacuum in a sphere you can run a bunch of numbers and see for yourself that the lifting force is very small below radius 1 and grows exponentially above radius 1. This means it will be exceptionally hard to build a working vacuum balloon below radius 1 but unfortunately there are limitations to building large structures as well. Usually you want a prototype to be simple and cheap, not experimental in and of itself. This means the first demonstrated vacuum balloon will likely be about 2 meters in diameter or about 6 feet. It also means a vacuum balloon of very large proportions would potentially have incredible lifting force.
Now that you understand the relations between size and lifting force all you need to do is calculate the volume of the envelope of the spherical balloon. This is done by simply calculating the volume of a sphere of the size of the envelope and then subtracting that by the volume of the inner void. The difference is the volume of your envelope and you can easily calculate the weight of your envelope by multiplying the density by the volume. If you do this while calculating the lifting force and plug different numbers in you can easily see how the ratio of weight to volume works. You can also see how the density influences this and even can compare the volume of different shapes if you really want to just to see how much better a sphere really is than perhaps a square.
It's very important to point out that one of my biggest lessons in building prototypes is that there can't be any defects. I originally was making hemispheres and trying to join them together before pumping down to vacuum and every time there was a failure it was at the meeting of the two hemispheres. One solid piece seems to be necessary. It's conceivable that two hemispheres can be joined and bonded to become one solid piece free of defects, but I unfortunately did not have the materials to do this. I did do some experiments and found that you can reinforce this area with lightweight bamboo if necessary. However, these were small preliminary designs and I'm not confident that would scale well.
It's worth noting that the next best shape is a cylinder with hemispheres on each end. Basically a tic tac shape. It's only worth attempting this shape if you have reasons to from a manufacturing perspective. For example, I played around with the idea of making a foam sheet and then rolling it into a cylinder before it set rather than attempting to cast a foam hemisphere. It only makes sense if you are attempting a volume too large to pull off as a sphere for practical reasons (like it would't fit in garage or won't caste evenly.) Because it still needs hemispheres it's a design best left for after demonstrating a spherical design.

Materials

I dive into the use of aerogels and xerogels in the article referenced above. The purpose of these foam materials is because when engineered properly they retain a lot of their strength but lose a lot of their weight which actually increases their strength to weight ratio and that's exactly what we need to make this work. There is no material in bulk form worth pursuing for this design. You absolutely have to use a foam material. Even if you could pull it off using glass or beryllium, it's just not practical even for demonstration purposes. During my search I found the most attractive material in the bulk to be polycarbonate. It's still not worth trying in bulk form, so I invented a way to make a foam out of it. Polycarbonate is lighter and stronger than glass. Nobody has ever made an aerogel out of it that I'm aware of. I did not image my foam because I'm not doing this work in a sophisticated lab, but I can say fairly confidently that it's about 75% porosity. That's impressive, but I suspect that a lot of the bonding is weak and there's defects, but in my defense I used an insanely primitive and low tech technique.
There are two well known foams we all have access to that in theory should work. Styrofoam and polyurethane.
I understand that may cause you to sigh in disbelief. After all, polyurethane was invented in the 1930's at IG Farben and styrofoam in the 1940's so they are not only old but very ubiquitous. I should also point out that aerogel was invented in the 1930's and was once mass produced by Monsanto. None of these materials are new.
I used the given compressive and shear strengths published by a local styrofoam manufacturer to identify some common commercial grade foams that are very light weight that should work in theory if there's no defects. I tried working with them to have some custom shapes made, but they unfortunately are limited to 4 feet for one of the dimensions of their die blocks. This is very problematic even if we knew how to fuse two styrofoam hemispheres together. I'm not going to say it's impossible, but it makes pulling it off more challenging. I did do some experiments with small 1 foot diameter styrofoam hemispheres that are commonly available and managed to measure a weight reduction before it imploded. Anybody can replicate these experiments. I expected it to fail because the thickness was less than 1 inch. I found the best design was to nest two of these styrofoam spheres within each other but with the orientations opposing so that the point of failure for the outer sphere was across the strongest points of the inner sphere. This should create a perpendicular crossing of the hemispheres of the inner and outer shells. This is also where I tried some glues. Gorilla glue works best and sure enough it's a polyurethane. I was so impressed by it that I switched over to attempting polyurethane designs for the sphere.
I found a polyurethane foam used in boating that is only 2lb/ft3 which is very impressive. It also boasts a compressive strength of 38 psi. I figure that means half an inch of this stuff would be able to handle 19 psi theoretically. That's 5 psi above the 14 psi we need for our vacuum balloon. It's not a lot of room for error, but it works in theory.
What I like about polyurethane is that you can fairly easily make custom shapes with it and DIY. I experimented with a few different techniques and can say that you need this foam to be open to the air to set properly, but it does take on conformal shapes fairly well. The best method I found to make a hemisphere out of it was to actually blow up a rubber balloon and fit that snug into a styrofoam sheet for support and then pour the polyurethane foam onto it and let it set. You can then use cutting tools to clean up the extra material. This method works, but the cutting is a pain as I did it by hand. Precision will likely be necessary to properly join the two hemispheres and I learned this the hard way when I tried to join them. A more precise way to form the hemispheres I found was to buy plastic hemispheres and coat them in wax (to make removal of the polyurethane easier.) This is far more expensive than the balloon but gives more precise results. You can find people selling these in sizes up to 6 feet but it will get pricey. It's worth mentioning that I had a hard time removing the set polyurethane from the plastic even with a wax coating (which I also verified experimentally is the least sticky thing to use) so I'm not sure it's even the best approach. I've tried reaching out to polyurethane component manufacturers but so far no response. I'm sure outsourcing this would remove a lot of headaches, but also be very expensive for such a custom piece.
Just to highlight why I think this commonly available polyurethane foam is promising I want to calculate a 1 meter radius sphere of one half inch thickness to show that it should work in theory. Of course, this means no defects including the joining of the two hemispheres which is still a problem to solve but it's possible gorilla glue and precision would solve it. Maybe a DIY'er with their own CNC may want to give it a shot.
Using the volume of sphere formula given above we see that the volume of 1 meter radius is 4.187m3. The volume of a sphere of 1 meter minus 1/2 inch is 4.0295 m3. The buoyant lift of that is 11.44 lbs. The difference in volume (to find the volume of the polyurethane used) is .1575 m3 or 5.56 ft3. At a density of 2 lbs/ft3 that gives a weight of 11 lbs of polyurethane. That's less than the 11.44 lbs of lift.
I know what you're probably thinking. How does it hold vacuum? It's true that polyurethane and styrofoam are not expected to hold vacuum (I actually did find experimentally that styrofoam does hold partial vacuum for a few hours after it's shrunk much like the LANL aerogel) but you can simply wrap the sphere in plastic to hold vacuum. I planned on experimenting with dip coatings, but for experimental purposes I came up with a very clever design that I will explain later. Just know that the plastic doesn't have to be very thick to hold vacuum so it's very much within the range of possibility to coat the sphere in a thin plastic layer at less than .44 lbs. Plastic is very dense, but we are talking about literally a few mils of material. This is also why I roll my eyes at people who mock me for attempting a design with materials that don't hold vacuum. You are not limited to materials that hold vacuum for your design when you can simply add a layer for that later.

Experimental Set Up

I initially bought one of those vacuum chambers made out of a large steel pan and thick acrylic. Mechanical pumps are easy to find and relatively cheap. Mine came with the chamber. However, I quickly found it wasn't big enough and attempting to build a larger one looked costly. This is where I got clever and shocked myself with a very cheap set up that actually works. I simply bought regular large sized vacuum bags designed for storing cloths because they have a clever little self sealing mechanism that traps the vacuum. These bags are not meant for actual vacuum with a mechanical pump so I wasn't sure how it would work. I also had to find a way to rig it all up. As funny as it sounds my solution was to take the nozzle of an empty plastic bottle that happened to fit onto the hose and then I cut a piece of EDPM rubber to cover the end meant for the bottle and put a small slit in the center for air to move through. I then pushed this into the self sealing part of the vacuum bag and it actually creates a seal and pumps down! And when you remove the pump it self seals!
I found I sometimes had issues with pumping down properly and solved this by using a metal straw that I placed inside the bag near the seal and directed towards the sphere to act as a channel. Once again, to my surprise this works very well.
So, I then disassembled my original steel pot vacuum chamber and used the parts along with some parts I had to buy online to rig the pressure gauge into the system so that I could verify how much vacuum I was achieving. I'm a bit proud of this DIY set up because it works so well.
In order to properly record your results you must weight the vacuum bag and the metal straw as well as your experimental sphere before vacuuming. Then vacuum it down and pay attention to the gauge. If your design is not very good it may implode before achieving full vacuum. That's okay. You can actually measure a weight reduction without reaching the full vacuum. "Full" vacuum in this case is actually what is known as low vacuum. Low vacuum is all you need for a vacuum balloon to work as you have effectively removed most of the air and it's not necessary to reach medium or high vacuum.
This set up was for spheres of only 1 foot diameter and I don't think there are bags large enough for 6 foot spheres. However, my plan was to use a heat gun to stitch a bunch of the bags together to make it work. It's dirty but once again it should work theoretically. I was also planning on using a heat gun to section off portions of the bag to seal it around the sphere and cut off excess material but that part is really only necessary if you are about to achieve lift. I imagine it's possible once you've proven you can make a structure strong enough and light enough for lift that a better technique would be to incorporate a valve and find a way to dip coat the sphere to seal it. I never got this far.

A Potential New Approach To Foam

I mentioned experimenting with making foams and identifying polycarbonate as good material to turn into a nano foam. I use the term nano foam because aerogel wouldn't be technically correct. They are both nano foams. The aerogel is made using gel. This approach doesn't. It's very low tech and dirty. I theorized I could use the fact that polycarbonate is a thermoplastic to my advantage and mix it as a powder with another material that can withstand it's glass transition temperature but is also easily soluble in water. So, I found some polycarbonate powder (first American apparently to buy it) and mixed it with some ordinary table salt then put it in the oven. I know this sounds ridiculous. Then I washed the sample after it cooled in the sink and dried it with paper towels. Then I soaked it in rubbing alcohol and dried that with paper towels. Then I let it sit overnight to fully evaporate if it's a big sample. Then I weighed it. When I mix the powder in a 1:1 ratio by weight the sample after washing it weights exactly half of when I started without losing any volume. So I washed out all of the salt. But, that's not all. Because this method is basically sintering the particles together, it already had lots of air pockets in it to begin with. I attempted to make a one cubic inch sample to measure the density and it's not the most precise but the density is roughly 4.7 g/in3 which is about a quarter of the density of bulk polycarbonate. This means it's porosity is about 75%. It's not he 90-99.99% of commercial aerogel, but I personally find the initial results surprising. There's a lot of ideas I have to tweak this including playing with the mix ratio, grain size, uniformity of the particles, and aerating the powder. What I find very interesting about this technique in general is that it actually would work with anything that can be sintered including other thermoplastics, ceramics, glasses and metals. This means this approach could be used to make porous metals or even metal nano foams.

The 2009 analysis of the metal sphere UFO

I've recently been made aware of the 1994 spherical UFO that Steve Colbern published a report on in 2009. A few things stand out to me as someone who has been actively working on vacuum balloons and ways to make porous metals. First, it looks like two hemispheres nested inside each other exactly as I describe was my best approach to making a vacuum balloon based off of experimental results. Second, the sphere is presumably hollow. Third, the report clearly states that the sample analyzed was a porous metal with nanostructures present. A hollow porous shell with nested hemispheres of opposing orientation is exactly what I would expect a vacuum balloon to look like. There are ways to use my technique on titanium to make it porous although I haven't done so experimentally because it's melting point is very high. Materials other than salt could be used but even if salt was used it would be interesting because it would vaporize at the glass transition temp of titanium which actually might help make it more porous. I do believe Na and Cl impurities were present in the sample according to the report. Perhaps one could experimentally recreate this sample using this method (minus the isotopes.)

Crowdsourcing

If anybody wants to crowdsource the work on this with me I'm open to it. Also, if people are open to crowdfunding the research I'm open to that as well. Either way, it's up on the internet now. Maybe 10 years from now somebody as crazy as me will pick up where I left off. I might return to this at a later date, but without help I think I need to take a break.
submitted by efh1 to UFOscience [link] [comments]