2013 rzr 800 4 seater

The Pickle, the Greatest Fantasy Football League out there

2013.01.18 20:48 GoldenTicketIdea The Pickle, the Greatest Fantasy Football League out there

Private Fantasy Football subreddit for the greatest fantasy league out there.

2010.12.26 23:57 kharasho Miami Heat

A subreddit for Miami Heat fans from all around the world! 🏆🏆🏆

2012.10.31 21:20 Testing for the Heat subreddit

A subreddit for Miami Heat fans from all over the world!

2023.03.30 07:38 Sorin61 Effect of Sodium Hyaluronate on Antioxidant and Anti-Ageing Activities in Caenorhabditis elegans [03 - 2023]

As an acidic polysaccharide, the formation of Hyaluronic acid (HA) is typically Sodium Hyaluronate (SH) for knee repair, oral treatment, skincare and as a food additive. Nevertheless, little information is available on the anti-ageing activity of SH as a food additive.
Therefore, we treated C. elegans with SH, then inferred the anti-aging activity of SH by examining the lifespan physiological indicators and senescence-associated gene expression. Compared with the control group, SH (800 μg/mL) prolonged the C. elegans’ lifespans in regular, 35 °C and H2O2 environment by 0.27-fold, 0.25-fold and 1.17-fold.
Simultaneously, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased by 8.6%, 0.36% and 167%. However, lipofuscin accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were decreased by 36%, 47.8–65.7% and 9.5–13.1%. A
fter SH treatment, athletic ability was improved and no impairment of reproductive capacity was seen. In addition, SH inhibited the blocking effect of age-1 and up-regulated gene levels involving daf-16, sod-3, gst-4 and skn-1.
In conclusion, SH provides potential applications in anti-ageing and anti-oxidation and regulates physiological function.
From: https://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/12/7/1400
submitted by Sorin61 to Nutraceuticalscience [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 07:34 Elina_01 Economic and Trade Cooperation between Indonesia and China

Since the establishment of the comprehensive strategic partnership between Indonesia and China in 2013, bilateral economic and trade cooperation has entered a period of comprehensive deepening. 2021, the accession of both countries to the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (RCEP) has provided new opportunities and momentum for bilateral economic and trade cooperation.
Trade: China has been Indonesia's largest trade partner for nine consecutive years and the largest export destination for six consecutive years. 2021, the bilateral trade volume between China and Indonesia exceeded USD 120 billion, up 58.6% year-on-year, ranking first among ASEAN countries in terms of growth. The trade structure of the two countries is highly complementary. China's main exports to Indonesia include mechanical and electrical products, iron and steel and their products, mainly industrial manufactured products; its main imports from Indonesia include mineral fuels, iron and steel, animal and vegetable oils and fats, mainly energy resource-intensive products and agricultural products.
Investment: China is the third largest source of foreign investment in Indonesia, with major investment areas including infrastructure construction, energy generation, telecommunications high-tech, business and internet services. Chinese investment projects in Indonesia are spread across all regions of Indonesia, especially in remote areas outside of Java, in line with the Indonesian government's strategic goal of promoting balanced regional development. Chinese investment in Indonesia also brings multiple benefits such as employment, technology transfer and supply chain optimization.
Cooperation: China and Indonesia have carried out a series of major cooperation projects under the framework of the "Belt and Road" initiative, such as the Yawan High Speed Rail, Jakarta-Bandung Expressway and Bali Cross-Sea Bridge. These projects have not only improved Indonesia's infrastructure and accessibility, but also promoted local socio-economic development and livelihood improvement. In addition, the two countries have strengthened cooperation in epidemic prevention and control, vaccine development and production.
Production: China and Indonesia are cooperating in the field of minerals, steel, rubber and other "downstreaming", i.e. processing or adding value in Indonesia before export, in order to improve the quality and income of Indonesia's exports, and also to meet the market demand in China. China's Zhejiang Qingshan Group and Jiangsu Delong Company have invested in smelters in Sulawesi, providing technical and financial support to Indonesia's mineral "downstreaming" process.
Consumption: China's Alibaba Group and Tencent Group have invested in local e-commerce platforms in Indonesia, such as Lazada and Tokopedia, providing Indonesian consumers with convenient online shopping services and opening up the Indonesian market for Chinese goods. China and Indonesia have also signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Tourism Cooperation, which has expanded the number of tourists and tourism projects between the two countries and enhanced mutual understanding and friendship between the two peoples.
Finance: China's Industrial and Commercial Bank and Construction Bank have set up branches or representative offices in Indonesia, providing financial services such as loans, settlement and insurance for enterprises in both China and Indonesia. China and Indonesia have also signed the Currency Swap Agreement to establish a bilateral local currency settlement mechanism, which reduces exchange rate risks and transaction costs. China and Indonesia have also explored and exchanged ideas in the fields of digital currency and financial technology, which have provided reference and support for the development and innovation of the financial markets of both countries.
In conclusion, the economic interdependence between China and Indonesia is diversified, deepened and of high quality, and is an important part of the comprehensive strategic partnership between the two countries, as well as a reflection of the common interests and well-being of the two peoples.
I believe that to continue to promote economic and trade cooperation between Indonesia and China, we can start from the following aspects:
  1. adhering to multilateralism, maintaining the international order of free trade and open cooperation, opposing unilateralism and protectionism, and jointly maintaining regional peace and stability;
  2. Strengthen cooperation in epidemic prevention and control, support the World Health Organization's leadership role in global epidemic fighting, promote fair distribution and accessibility of vaccines, and restore the smooth flow of people and logistics.
  3. Deepen the construction of free trade zones, implement the RCEP agreement, promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, lower tariff and non-tariff barriers, and expand market access.
  4. Promote infrastructure connectivity, strengthen the dovetailing of the Belt and Road Initiative and ASEAN's Master Plan 2025 on Connectivity, accelerate the construction of major projects, and improve physical, institutional and human connectivity in the region.
  5. Innovate cooperation models, strengthen cooperation in emerging areas such as digital economy, green development and smart cities, accelerate policy coordination and rule-making, and promote scientific and technological innovation and industrial upgrading.
What do you all think?
submitted by Elina_01 to indonesia [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 07:24 StepwiseUndrape574 Grand Theft Auto V Loads Up To 92 Percent Faster On PS5 Than PS4 In Early Tests

Grand Theft Auto V is notable for all kinds of reasons. It's the most expensive video game ever made, and also one of the very most successful, by any measure. It sold so well that Rockstar kept the online service for the 7th-generation (PS3 and Xbox 360) releases of the game going from release in 2013 until late last year. It had moved over 150 million copies as of last August, in fact.
That number has surely gone up since then, and it's probably going to continue going up for years to come thanks to the updated re-release that's now available on the PlayStation 5 and Xbox Series consoles. We've already written about what's included in the re-release, but the short version is that it adds higher-quality assets, ray-traced lighting, and 60 FPS options to the exclusively-30-FPS console releases.
ssd sony ps5 2
Unfortunately, another notable aspect of GTA V is its interminable loading times, especially on the consoles. Well, arguably the biggest change this console generation has been the move to solid-state storage instead of the spinning rust used previously. Both families of 9th-generation game consoles support disk I/O tens of thousands of times faster than the 8th-generation consoles.
Naturally the new release of GTA V reaps the benefits of that in its load times. Over at IGN, they put the new release through its paces and found that load times are drastically improved across the board. Selecting "replay mission" can find load times as much as 75% faster on the new system, while loading autosaves was slashed from over two minutes to around 20 seconds on Sony's latest machine.
ign gtav ps5 loading
As showcased in IGN's video, the difference upon starting a new game is even more mind-blowing. On the PlayStation 4, it took 2 minutes and 18 seconds to load from the menu to the new-game heist sequence. Performing the same operation on the PlayStation 5 took just eleven seconds. The player was able to get halfway through the mission on the PS5 by the time the older system finished loading.
We feel it's likely that this enormous improvement isn't merely the work of the fancy SSD, but also that of the PS5's potent Zen 2 CPU cores as well as some software optimizations. Players of GTA Online may recall that an enterprising developer found a simple optimization (arguably, a bugfix) that slashed loading times by 75%. Rockstar even paid out a bug bounty to the developer.
We still haven't heard back from Rockstar on when or if these improvements will be finding their way to the PC version of the game, nor whether there will be a charge for the update if they do. It seems likely that Rockstar is gauging the playerbase's reaction to such a thing. You can pick up the refreshed release on PS5 for $10 right now, or on Xbox Series XS for $20, but both prices will rise to $40 after three months, so get while the getting's good if you're not willing to wait a few years for GTA 6.
submitted by StepwiseUndrape574 to gta5moneydrops_ [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 07:17 nunatak16 6 day loop in the WP Fold

The Fold (or Reef further north) is a very long wrinkle in the earth in Utah. Steep, rugged and remote this loop is centered around the southern end of the Fold with weird domes and spires on the east side and dramatic sandstone canyons cutting into the long sloping west side, before they spill into the E.
The route focused on climbing the two high points in the area in addition to linking a series of hard to get in and out of canyons, all while doing a big loop.
On the 70 mile route we found no maintained trails but did follow a game path for an hour or so on day 4. We saw no one else, despite this is the busy hiking season in the canyons.
Images: https://imgur.com/a/A8fpjUr
Driving the last two hours to our east side start we encountered only four vehicles, a couple of which were a tow truck pulling out a wanna-be overlander. As Brian like to say when bouncing us across some remote mesa in his beat up Ford Exploder: “Overlanding? It’s called car camping. Been doing it forever“.
The trailhead was decided for us when the road ahead suddenly was completely washed out by a flash flood from the day before. We loaded our packs and soon descended steeply into the significant crevice of HC Canyon before the 2000’ climb to a divide in the Fold. Eventually down in the canyons on the other side things got complex.
Several days later we again emerged on top of the Fold but much farther north. After a day and a half traversing the lofty spine we picked our way down a remote part with striking arches and deep pools to finish off.
Planned with GE and Caltopo the route pays homage the great Steve Allen by linking parts of three of his adventures with some home brewed lines on the map.
The difficulty felt moderate; YMMV. We have a good amount of experience with one mile-an-hour terrain on the Plateau. Hauling and lowering packs is second nature and a willingness to solo fourth class with exposure is often just a deep breath away. The main challenge on this one is dead accurate navigation and constant focus while off trail’ing for 10 hours a day. Going solo would have been outside my comfort zone due to remoteness and lack of help with the dog, because, as Charlie Brown knows well: If my dog can't go - I'm not going.
Hardest isolated moves was the exit of F Canyon via a steep fifth class wall above slippery Moqui steps. The longest rope assisted obstacle was 70’ tall and a day earlier.
My dog took it all in stride, so maybe it all wasn’t so bad.
Water is always a serious planning concern on the Plateau. This trip was sketched out years ago and laid dormant on my computer waiting for the conditions that came together this late March: a couple of big spring storms covered the area with flash floods followed by an unseasonably cold high pressure: potholes and canyon bottoms got filled with water before we arrived and highs in the low forties kept it there for the entire trip. There was snow in the deep shade of the incredible mile long ledge walk 800’ above GC Canyon.
Our TPW was around thirty pounds. That included newly built framed packs for testing, 80’ of 6mm rope, a brick of a film camera and some real coffee brewing luxuries boosted by a sack of heavy cream powder.
While we shared a 9x9 mid between three six foot plus guys and a dog, each of us did bring a white gas kitchen and the delicious food choices were individually packed, but carefully traded. To see us thru the cold evenings we took turns making pots of Mormon tea with raisins. All these core-warming hot drinks and elaborate dinners consumed a whopping 20 ounces of fuel per person.
Pro Bars and Lenny & Larry Complete cookies, in addition to salami, cheese, Fritos and torts completed the picture.
We used aqua mira as the silty post flood water would have killed a filter immediately. Cooking water needed no treating.
In packing our layers all us under estimated the wind and day-time biting cold, especially the conditions on top of the Fold. We even got hit with a couple of squally snow storms on the day long traverse from Cliff to Hall.
Lows hit the teens despite keeping all camps out of the deep canyon bottoms with their notorious pooling of cold air. Sharing a well sealed tent, wearing pretty much everything and eating a solid high fat diet gave us reasonable comfort with our non-quilts, aka sleeping bags, rated in the high twenties.
Phone/GPS navigation in this sort of complex terrain was indispensable. I loaded all phones with the route on 7.5 quads plus springs and known pothole waypoints. I also added pics of the appropriate pages from Allen’s book. We had three big power banks and spare charging cables, plus the redundancy of two capable apps with different map sets: iHike and MapOut. No single paper map covered the whole route so we didn’t bring any; also no one owned an emergency satellite beacon.
submitted by nunatak16 to Ultralight [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 07:04 Thanatos-GreekReaper 3 tower equipments ins 5 battles... Im eating good today

submitted by Thanatos-GreekReaper to mkxmobile [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 07:01 Efficient-Roof-6797 Un Dimanche comme ''les autres''.

Bonjours à tous, je m'appelle Kevin j'ai 27 et je vais vour raconter mon histoire de vie.
Celle d'un Dimanche soir de Octobre 2001 qui avait commencer et ce déroulais comme les autres. À ce moment là j'avais 6 ans. Ce soir là j'ai appeler au téléphone ma meilleure amie de l'époque, elle et moi avions l'habitude de ce voir tout les Dimanche soir pour jouer ensemble et mes parents et c'est parents était aussi de bon amis. Mais ce soir là mon amie fesait du ménage il cela était un peut long. Alors que le temps avancais c'est parents avait décider que je ne vient pas ce Dimanche là pour qu'ils puissent finirs leurs ménages et en plus il était rendu trop tard le soir. Alors que je raccroche le téléphone et que je dit cela à mon père et ma mère.
Mon père commençais à ce frustrer pour une situation pourtant toute bête... Faut savoir que mon père était alcoolique et bien sur à part sa bière chérie et sont match de Hockey à la télé pas grand chose comptait pour lui. Bref dans la situation que je répète toute bête il à commencer à ce frustrer dire des gros mots sans raison et menacer ma mère qu'il allais la frapper. Évidament mon père et ma mère ont commencer à s'engueuler tout les deux et moi durant ce moment je suis aller me réfugier dans ma chambre pour un ''99e'' soir de chicane, j'en avait l'habitude même si chaque fois sa me térrorisais... Je suis aller dans un coin de ma chambre comme j'avais l'habitude de le faire et j'ai répeter tout bas (Attend un peut ça va passer demain est un jours différent) J'avais toujours l'habitude de répeter sa quand une chicane éclatait et à chaque fois ça passais mais pas ce soir là visiblement...
Une fois les bruits devenu silencieux j'ai retourner dans le salon puis 30 secondes plus tard mon père à recommencer à menacer ma mère. Alors ma mère c'est tanné elle à pris quelques affaires avec elle et à décider d'aller avec moi chez la voisine d'à côté juste de l'autre côté du mur de notre appartement. C'est à ce moment que mon père à éclater de rage!! Nous étions réfugiez chez la voisine la porte barré bien sur et lui est sorti de notre appartement à parler à travers la porte pour espérer que ma mère lui ouvre la porte. Mais ma mère à refuser alors il est retourner dans notre appartement et à commencer à frapper dans le mur avec c'est points ce même mur qui nous s'epparais de lui!! Mon père frappais et frappais de longues très longues minutes d'afiler avant d'arrêter de revenir vers la porte et d'essayer à nouveau de convaincre ma mère de le laisser entrer. Et elle refusais toujours alors il retournais dans l'appartement et recommençait à frapper le mur pour tenter de le défoncer avec c'est propres points.
Heureusement les murs était solide et il n'a jamais réussi le défoncer. Moi j'était coucher sur le sofa avec un livre dans les mains pour ''essayer'' me ne pas y penser mais chaque coup donner au mur me frissonnais dans tout le corps. Je tenais mon livre des 101 D'alimatiens et je tranblait comme une feuille! Même si j'avais que 6 ans et que la mort pour moi était inconnu j'avais peur pour ma vie et surtout peur qu'il tue ma mère!! Ma mère et la voisine avait appelez la Police 22 fois avant qu'enfin une voiture de Police arrive à l'appartement. Ils y avait 3 voitures et 2 équipes de Police. Tout cela avait durée une éternitée je ne pourrais même pas dire exactement. Mais selon ma mère environ 30 minutes.
Quand la Police est arriver les coup ont cesser enfin chacun de notres côté parlais à la Police pour raconter ce qui venais de ce passer. Puis mon père à été arrêter et détenue provisoirement le temps que moi et ma mère nous déménagions. Mon père avait été arrêter 4 jours. Je me rappelle pas ou j'ai passer la nuit ce soir là. Mais je me souvient que le lendemain j'ai vue les troues dans le mur. Le mur avait bien résister il avait deux énorme troue remplit de sang sécher ma mère à fait nos valises et pris l'essentiel puis nous avons déménager dans la famille à ma mère. Mon père lui est rester habiter dans cet appartement jusqu'à sa mort en Août 2013 d'une cyrose du foi...
Après cette épisode horrible de ma jeune vie je n'avais pas revue mon père des années et des années après. Jusqu'en 2011 quand mon oncle (sont frère) était décéder du Cancer et que je suis aller au salon funéraire. Je savais qu'il allais être là lui qui avait toujours été rejeter par sa propre famille.. En même temps c'est comprenable car il ne voulait pas changer je croyais que le revoir allais être différent j'ai repris contact avec lui et je voulait commencer une vrai relation père fils. Mais notre contact à été de courte durée puisque quand j'était en famille d'accueil il à dit aux téléphone à l'intervenante sociale qu'il en avait rien à foutre de moi tant que les service sociaux était entre moi et lui. Et bien sur il était complètement saoul...
Après avoir appris cela j'ai été déçu et sans lui dire du jours aux lendemain j'ai couper tout contact avec lui.. Je lui en voulait de ne pas avoir changer de ne pas avoir appris des leçons j'ai été idiot de croire qu'il aurais pu changer après m'avoir vue. Finalement les seules nouvelles que j'ai reçus après ça était sa mort en 2013. Ça bière chérie l'a emporter et j'espère que de la ou il est il est heureux.
submitted by Efficient-Roof-6797 to histoire_de_nos_vies [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:58 J_l0l Matches never feel fair

Matches never feel fair
Whenever I jump into infinite, it always feels like the game will throw me against pros whenever I'm having fun. Does anyone else experience this ? I could swear that for every win that I get I lose at least 3 or more matches.
submitted by J_l0l to halo [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:57 aguk98 Can’t activate e-sim on new device

Can’t activate e-sim on new device
Hi guys. I need some help activating my e-sim. The problem is, it is asking me for a sms code but I already reseted my old phone, so I don’t have access to my number. Also, I can’t call the number below because I am not in the US.
submitted by aguk98 to mintmobile [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:50 DJsoupstain Y’all think we’re getting any D-Linemen next promo? 😭

Y’all think we’re getting any D-Linemen next promo? 😭 submitted by DJsoupstain to MaddenMobileForums [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:49 PMex10 Last new CS parameter

submitted by PMex10 to PokemonMasters [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:42 WowieCowie69 Chance me

Hi, im applying to transfer as a student currently transferring from a top Canadian university but i went to a US HS and am a permanent US resident.
I’ve applied to: Upenn, vanderbilt, JHU, Cornell, CMU
All for CS( I doubt ill get into cmu)
For stats:
Demographics: Asian male
Essays: Wrote abt how i shifted my goals from medicine and becoming a doctor to taking on a research based approach to health care and how I plan on using my interest in computer science to do so…
submitted by WowieCowie69 to TransferToTop25 [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:37 Choice-Bake7922 Add uranium to minecraft

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92. It is a silvery-grey metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons. Uranium radioactively decays by emitting an alpha particle. The half-life of this decay varies between 159,200 and 4.5 billion years for different isotopes, making them useful for dating the age of the Earth. The most common isotopes in natural uranium are uranium-238 (which has 146 neutrons and accounts for over 99% of uranium on Earth) and uranium-235 (which has 143 neutrons). Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the primordially occurring elements. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, and slightly lower than that of gold or tungsten. It occurs naturally in low concentrations of a few parts per million in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.[6] Many contemporary uses of uranium exploit its unique nuclear properties. Uranium-235 is the only naturally occurring fissile isotope, which makes it widely used in nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons. However, because of the tiny concentrations found in nature, uranium needs to undergo enrichment so that enough uranium-235 is present. Uranium-238 is fissionable by fast neutrons, and is fertile, meaning it can be transmuted to fissile plutonium-239 in a nuclear reactor. Another fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be produced from natural thorium and is studied for future industrial use in nuclear technology. Uranium-238 has a small probability for spontaneous fission or even induced fission with fast neutrons; uranium-235, and to a lesser degree uranium-233, have a much higher fission cross-section for slow neutrons. In sufficient concentration, these isotopes maintain a sustained nuclear chain reaction. This generates the heat in nuclear power reactors, and produces the fissile material for nuclear weapons. Depleted uranium (238U) is used in kinetic energy penetrators and armor plating.[7][8]
The 1789 discovery of uranium in the mineral pitchblende is credited to Martin Heinrich Klaproth, who named the new element after the recently discovered planet Uranus. Eugène-Melchior Péligot was the first person to isolate the metal and its radioactive properties were discovered in 1896 by Henri Becquerel. Research by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner, Enrico Fermi and others, such as J. Robert Oppenheimer starting in 1934 led to its use as a fuel in the nuclear power industry and in Little Boy, the first nuclear weapon used in war. An ensuing arms race during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons that used uranium metal and uranium-derived plutonium-239. Dismantling of these weapons and related nuclear facilities is carried out within various nuclear disarmament programs and costs billions of dollars. Weapon-grade uranium obtained from nuclear weapons is diluted with uranium-238 and reused as fuel for nuclear reactors. The development and deployment of these nuclear reactors continue on a global base as they are powerful sources of CO2-free energy. Spent nuclear fuel forms radioactive waste, which mostly consists of uranium-238 and poses significant health threat and environmental impact. Uranium is a silvery white, weakly radioactive metal. It has a Mohs hardness of 6, sufficient to scratch glass and approximately equal to that of titanium, rhodium, manganese and niobium. It is malleable, ductile, slightly paramagnetic, strongly electropositive and a poor electrical conductor.[9][10] Uranium metal has a very high density of 19.1 g/cm3,[11] denser than lead (11.3 g/cm3),[12] but slightly less dense than tungsten and gold (19.3 g/cm3).[13][14]
Uranium metal reacts with almost all non-metal elements (with the exception of the noble gases) and their compounds, with reactivity increasing with temperature.[15] Hydrochloric and nitric acids dissolve uranium, but non-oxidizing acids other than hydrochloric acid attack the element very slowly.[9] When finely divided, it can react with cold water; in air, uranium metal becomes coated with a dark layer of uranium oxide.[10] Uranium in ores is extracted chemically and converted into uranium dioxide or other chemical forms usable in industry.
Uranium-235 was the first isotope that was found to be fissile. Other naturally occurring isotopes are fissionable, but not fissile. On bombardment with slow neutrons, its uranium-235 isotope will most of the time divide into two smaller nuclei, releasing nuclear binding energy and more neutrons. If too many of these neutrons are absorbed by other uranium-235 nuclei, a nuclear chain reaction occurs that results in a burst of heat or (in special circumstances) an explosion. In a nuclear reactor, such a chain reaction is slowed and controlled by a neutron poison, absorbing some of the free neutrons. Such neutron absorbent materials are often part of reactor control rods (see nuclear reactor physics for a description of this process of reactor control).
As little as 15 lb (6.8 kg) of uranium-235 can be used to make an atomic bomb.[16] The nuclear weapon detonated over Hiroshima, called Little Boy, relied on uranium fission. However, the first nuclear bomb (the Gadget used at Trinity) and the bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki (Fat Man) were both plutonium bombs.
Uranium metal has three allotropic forms:[17]
α (orthorhombic) stable up to 668 °C (1,234 °F). Orthorhombic, space group No. 63, Cmcm, lattice parameters a = 285.4 pm, b = 587 pm, c = 495.5 pm.[18] β (tetragonal) stable from 668 to 775 °C (1,234 to 1,427 °F). Tetragonal, space group P42/mnm, P42nm, or P4n2, lattice parameters a = 565.6 pm, b = c = 1075.9 pm.[18] γ (body-centered cubic) from 775 °C (1,427 °F) to melting point—this is the most malleable and ductile state. Body-centered cubic, lattice parameter a = 352.4 pm.[18]
The major application of uranium in the military sector is in high-density penetrators. This ammunition consists of depleted uranium (DU) alloyed with 1–2% other elements, such as titanium or molybdenum.[19] At high impact speed, the density, hardness, and pyrophoricity of the projectile enable the destruction of heavily armored targets. Tank armor and other removable vehicle armor can also be hardened with depleted uranium plates. The use of depleted uranium became politically and environmentally contentious after the use of such munitions by the US, UK and other countries during wars in the Persian Gulf and the Balkans raised questions concerning uranium compounds left in the soil[8][20][21][22] (see Gulf War syndrome).[16]
Depleted uranium is also used as a shielding material in some containers used to store and transport radioactive materials. While the metal itself is radioactive, its high density makes it more effective than lead in halting radiation from strong sources such as radium.[9] Other uses of depleted uranium include counterweights for aircraft control surfaces, as ballast for missile re-entry vehicles and as a shielding material.[10] Due to its high density, this material is found in inertial guidance systems and in gyroscopic compasses.[10] Depleted uranium is preferred over similarly dense metals due to its ability to be easily machined and cast as well as its relatively low cost.[23] The main risk of exposure to depleted uranium is chemical poisoning by uranium oxide rather than radioactivity (uranium being only a weak alpha emitter).
During the later stages of World War II, the entire Cold War, and to a lesser extent afterwards, uranium-235 has been used as the fissile explosive material to produce nuclear weapons. Initially, two major types of fission bombs were built: a relatively simple device that uses uranium-235 and a more complicated mechanism that uses plutonium-239 derived from uranium-238. Later, a much more complicated and far more powerful type of fission/fusion bomb (thermonuclear weapon) was built, that uses a plutonium-based device to cause a mixture of tritium and deuterium to undergo nuclear fusion. Such bombs are jacketed in a non-fissile (unenriched) uranium case, and they derive more than half their power from the fission of this material by fast neutrons from the nuclear fusion process.[24]
The main use of uranium in the civilian sector is to fuel nuclear power plants. One kilogram of uranium-235 can theoretically produce about 20 terajoules of energy (2×1013 joules), assuming complete fission; as much energy as 1.5 million kilograms (1,500 tonnes) of coal.[7]
Commercial nuclear power plants use fuel that is typically enriched to around 3% uranium-235.[7] The CANDU and Magnox designs are the only commercial reactors capable of using unenriched uranium fuel. Fuel used for United States Navy reactors is typically highly enriched in uranium-235 (the exact values are classified). In a breeder reactor, uranium-238 can also be converted into plutonium through the following reaction:[10]
Before (and, occasionally, after) the discovery of radioactivity, uranium was primarily used in small amounts for yellow glass and pottery glazes, such as uranium glass and in Fiestaware.[25]
The discovery and isolation of radium in uranium ore (pitchblende) by Marie Curie sparked the development of uranium mining to extract the radium, which was used to make glow-in-the-dark paints for clock and aircraft dials.[26][27] This left a prodigious quantity of uranium as a waste product, since it takes three tonnes of uranium to extract one gram of radium. This waste product was diverted to the glazing industry, making uranium glazes very inexpensive and abundant. Besides the pottery glazes, uranium tile glazes accounted for the bulk of the use, including common bathroom and kitchen tiles which can be produced in green, yellow, mauve, black, blue, red and other colors.
Uranium was also used in photographic chemicals (especially uranium nitrate as a toner),[10] in lamp filaments for stage lighting bulbs,[28] to improve the appearance of dentures,[29] and in the leather and wood industries for stains and dyes. Uranium salts are mordants of silk or wool. Uranyl acetate and uranyl formate are used as electron-dense "stains" in transmission electron microscopy, to increase the contrast of biological specimens in ultrathin sections and in negative staining of viruses, isolated cell organelles and macromolecules.
The discovery of the radioactivity of uranium ushered in additional scientific and practical uses of the element. The long half-life of the isotope uranium-238 (4.47×109 years) makes it well-suited for use in estimating the age of the earliest igneous rocks and for other types of radiometric dating, including uranium–thorium dating, uranium–lead dating and uranium–uranium dating. Uranium metal is used for X-ray targets in the making of high-energy X-rays.[10]
The use of uranium in its natural oxide form dates back to at least the year 79 CE, when it was used in the Roman Empire to add a yellow color to ceramic glazes.[10] Yellow glass with 1% uranium oxide was found in a Roman villa on Cape Posillipo in the Bay of Naples, Italy, by R. T. Gunther of the University of Oxford in 1912.[30] Starting in the late Middle Ages, pitchblende was extracted from the Habsburg silver mines in Joachimsthal, Bohemia (now Jáchymov in the Czech Republic), and was used as a coloring agent in the local glassmaking industry.[31] In the early 19th century, the world's only known sources of uranium ore were these mines. Mining for uranium in the Ore Mountains ceased on the German side after the Cold War ended and SDAG Wismut was wound down. On the Czech side there were attempts during the uranium price bubble of 2007 to restart mining, but those were quickly abandoned following a fall in uranium prices.[32][33]
The discovery of the element is credited to the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth. While he was working in his experimental laboratory in Berlin in 1789, Klaproth was able to precipitate a yellow compound (likely sodium diuranate) by dissolving pitchblende in nitric acid and neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide.[31] Klaproth assumed the yellow substance was the oxide of a yet-undiscovered element and heated it with charcoal to obtain a black powder, which he thought was the newly discovered metal itself (in fact, that powder was an oxide of uranium).[31][34] He named the newly discovered element after the planet Uranus (named after the primordial Greek god of the sky), which had been discovered eight years earlier by William Herschel.[35]
In 1841, Eugène-Melchior Péligot, Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (Central School of Arts and Manufactures) in Paris, isolated the first sample of uranium metal by heating uranium tetrachloride with potassium.[31][36]
Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity by using uranium in 1896.[15] Becquerel made the discovery in Paris by leaving a sample of a uranium salt, K2UO2(SO4)2 (potassium uranyl sulfate), on top of an unexposed photographic plate in a drawer and noting that the plate had become "fogged".[37] He determined that a form of invisible light or rays emitted by uranium had exposed the plate.
During World War I when the Central Powers suffered a shortage of molybdenum to make artillery gun barrels and high speed tool steels they routinely substituted ferrouranium alloys which present many of the same physical characteristics. When this practice became known in 1916 the USA government requested several prominent universities to research these uses for uranium and tools made with these formulas remained in use for several decades only ending when the Manhattan Project and the Cold War placed a large demand on uranium for fission research and weapon development.[38][39][40]
A team led by Enrico Fermi in 1934 observed that bombarding uranium with neutrons produces the emission of beta rays (electrons or positrons from the elements produced; see beta particle).[41] The fission products were at first mistaken for new elements with atomic numbers 93 and 94, which the Dean of the Faculty of Rome, Orso Mario Corbino, christened ausonium and hesperium, respectively.[42][43][44][45] The experiments leading to the discovery of uranium's ability to fission (break apart) into lighter elements and release binding energy were conducted by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann[41] in Hahn's laboratory in Berlin. Lise Meitner and her nephew, the physicist Otto Robert Frisch, published the physical explanation in February 1939 and named the process "nuclear fission".[46] Soon after, Fermi hypothesized that the fission of uranium might release enough neutrons to sustain a fission reaction. Confirmation of this hypothesis came in 1939, and later work found that on average about 2.5 neutrons are released by each fission of the rare uranium isotope uranium-235.[41] Fermi urged Alfred O. C. Nier to separate uranium isotopes for determination of the fissile component, and on 29 February 1940, Nier used an instrument he built at the University of Minnesota to separate the world's first uranium-235 sample in the Tate Laboratory. After mailed to Columbia University's cyclotron, John Dunning confirmed the sample to be the isolated fissile material on 1 March.[47] Further work found that the far more common uranium-238 isotope can be transmuted into plutonium, which, like uranium-235, is also fissile by thermal neutrons. These discoveries led numerous countries to begin working on the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Despite fission having been discovered in Germany, the Uranverein ("uranium club") Germany's wartime project to research nuclear power and/or weapons was hampered by limited resources, infighting, the exile or non-involvement of several prominent scientists in the field and several crucial mistakes such as failing to account for impurities in available graphite samples which made it appear less suitable as a neutron moderator than it is in reality. Germany's attempts to build a natural uranium / heavy water reactor had not come close to reaching criticality by the time the Americans reached Haigerloch, the site of the last German wartime reactor experiment.[48]
On 2 December 1942, as part of the Manhattan Project, another team led by Enrico Fermi was able to initiate the first artificial self-sustained nuclear chain reaction, Chicago Pile-1. An initial plan using enriched uranium-235 was abandoned as it was as yet unavailable in sufficient quantities.[49] Working in a lab below the stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, the team created the conditions needed for such a reaction by piling together 360 tonnes of graphite, 53 tonnes of uranium oxide, and 5.5 tonnes of uranium metal, a majority of which was supplied by Westinghouse Lamp Plant in a makeshift production process.[41][50]
Two major types of atomic bombs were developed by the United States during World War II: a uranium-based device (codenamed "Little Boy") whose fissile material was highly enriched uranium, and a plutonium-based device (see Trinity test and "Fat Man") whose plutonium was derived from uranium-238. The uranium-based Little Boy device became the first nuclear weapon used in war when it was detonated over the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. Exploding with a yield equivalent to 12,500 tonnes of trinitrotoluene, the blast and thermal wave of the bomb destroyed nearly 50,000 buildings and killed approximately 75,000 people (see Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki).[37] Initially it was believed that uranium was relatively rare, and that nuclear proliferation could be avoided by simply buying up all known uranium stocks, but within a decade large deposits of it were discovered in many places around the world.[51][52]
The X-10 Graphite Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, formerly known as the Clinton Pile and X-10 Pile, was the world's second artificial nuclear reactor (after Enrico Fermi's Chicago Pile) and was the first reactor designed and built for continuous operation. Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor I, located at the Atomic Energy Commission's National Reactor Testing Station near Arco, Idaho, became the first nuclear reactor to create electricity on 20 December 1951.[53] Initially, four 150-watt light bulbs were lit by the reactor, but improvements eventually enabled it to power the whole facility (later, the town of Arco became the first in the world to have all its electricity come from nuclear power generated by BORAX-III, another reactor designed and operated by Argonne National Laboratory).[54][55] The world's first commercial scale nuclear power station, Obninsk in the Soviet Union, began generation with its reactor AM-1 on 27 June 1954. Other early nuclear power plants were Calder Hall in England, which began generation on 17 October 1956,[56] and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Pennsylvania, which began on 26 May 1958. Nuclear power was used for the first time for propulsion by a submarine, the USS Nautilus, in 1954.[41][57]
Prehistoric naturally occurring fission Main article: Natural nuclear fission reactor In 1972, the French physicist Francis Perrin discovered fifteen ancient and no longer active natural nuclear fission reactors in three separate ore deposits at the Oklo mine in Gabon, West Africa, collectively known as the Oklo Fossil Reactors. The ore deposit is 1.7 billion years old; then, uranium-235 constituted about 3% of the total uranium on Earth.[58] This is high enough to permit a sustained nuclear fission chain reaction to occur, provided other supporting conditions exist. The capacity of the surrounding sediment to contain the health-threatening nuclear waste products has been cited by the U.S. federal government as supporting evidence for the feasibility to store spent nuclear fuel at the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository.[58]
Above-ground nuclear tests by the Soviet Union and the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s and by France into the 1970s and 1980s[23] spread a significant amount of fallout from uranium daughter isotopes around the world.[59] Additional fallout and pollution occurred from several nuclear accidents.[60]
Uranium miners have a higher incidence of cancer. An excess risk of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners, for example, has been documented and linked to their occupation.[61] The Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, a 1990 law in the US, required $100,000 in "compassion payments" to uranium miners diagnosed with cancer or other respiratory ailments.[62]
During the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, huge stockpiles of uranium were amassed and tens of thousands of nuclear weapons were created using enriched uranium and plutonium made from uranium. After the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, an estimated 600 short tons (540 metric tons) of highly enriched weapons grade uranium (enough to make 40,000 nuclear warheads) had been stored in often inadequately guarded facilities in the Russian Federation and several other former Soviet states.[16] Police in Asia, Europe, and South America on at least 16 occasions from 1993 to 2005 have intercepted shipments of smuggled bomb-grade uranium or plutonium, most of which was from ex-Soviet sources.[16] From 1993 to 2005 the Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program, operated by the federal government of the United States, spent approximately US $550 million to help safeguard uranium and plutonium stockpiles in Russia. This money was used for improvements and security enhancements at research and storage facilities.[16]
Safety of nuclear facilities in Russia has been significantly improved since the stabilization of political and economical turmoil of the early 1990s. For example, in 1993 there were 29 incidents ranking above level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale, and this number dropped under four per year in 1995–2003. The number of employers receiving annual radiation doses above 20 mSv, which is equivalent to a single full-body CT scan,[63] saw a strong decline around 2000. In November 2015, the Russian government approved a federal program for nuclear and radiation safety for 2016 to 2030 with a budget of 562 billion rubles (ca. 8 billion dollars). Its key issue is "the deferred liabilities accumulated during the 70 years of the nuclear industry, particularly during the time of the Soviet Union". Approximately 73% of the budget will be spent on decommissioning aged and obsolete nuclear reactors and nuclear facilities, especially those involved in state defense programs; 20% will go in processing and disposal of nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, and 5% into monitoring and ensuring of nuclear and radiation safety.[64]
Along with all elements having atomic weights higher than that of iron, uranium is only naturally formed by the r-process (rapid neutron capture) in supernovae and neutron star mergers.[65] Primordial thorium and uranium are only produced in the r-process, because the s-process (slow neutron capture) is too slow and cannot pass the gap of instability after bismuth.[66][67] Besides the two extant primordial uranium isotopes, 235U and 238U, the r-process also produced significant quantities of 236U, which has a shorter half-life and so is an extinct radionuclide, having long since decayed completely to 232Th. Uranium-236 was itself enriched by the decay of 244Pu, accounting for the observed higher-than-expected abundance of thorium and lower-than-expected abundance of uranium.[68] While the natural abundance of uranium has been supplemented by the decay of extinct 242Pu (half-life 0.375 million years) and 247Cm (half-life 16 million years), producing 238U and 235U respectively, this occurred to an almost negligible extent due to the shorter half-lives of these parents and their lower production than 236U and 244Pu, the parents of thorium: the 247Cm:235U ratio at the formation of the Solar System was (7.0±1.6)×10−5.[69]
Uranium is a naturally occurring element that can be found in low levels within all rock, soil, and water. Uranium is the 51st element in order of abundance in the Earth's crust. Uranium is also the highest-numbered element to be found naturally in significant quantities on Earth and is almost always found combined with other elements.[10] The decay of uranium, thorium, and potassium-40 in the Earth's mantle is thought to be the main source of heat[70][71] that keeps the Earth's outer core in the liquid state and drives mantle convection, which in turn drives plate tectonics.
Uranium's average concentration in the Earth's crust is (depending on the reference) 2 to 4 parts per million,[9][23] or about 40 times as abundant as silver.[15] The Earth's crust from the surface to 25 km (15 mi) down is calculated to contain 1017 kg (2×1017 lb) of uranium while the oceans may contain 1013 kg (2×1013 lb).[9] The concentration of uranium in soil ranges from 0.7 to 11 parts per million (up to 15 parts per million in farmland soil due to use of phosphate fertilizers),[72] and its concentration in sea water is 3 parts per billion.[23]
Uranium is more plentiful than antimony, tin, cadmium, mercury, or silver, and it is about as abundant as arsenic or molybdenum.[10][23] Uranium is found in hundreds of minerals, including uraninite (the most common uranium ore), carnotite, autunite, uranophane, torbernite, and coffinite.[10] Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as phosphate rock deposits, and minerals such as lignite, and monazite sands in uranium-rich ores[10] (it is recovered commercially from sources with as little as 0.1% uranium[15]).
Some bacteria, such as Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter metallireducens and some strains of Burkholderia fungorum, use uranium for their growth and convert U(VI) to U(IV).[73][74] Recent research suggests that this pathway includes reduction of the soluble U(VI) via an intermediate U(V) pentavalent state.[75][76] Other organisms, such as the lichen Trapelia involuta or microorganisms such as the bacterium Citrobacter, can absorb concentrations of uranium that are up to 300 times the level of their environment.[77] Citrobacter species absorb uranyl ions when given glycerol phosphate (or other similar organic phosphates). After one day, one gram of bacteria can encrust themselves with nine grams of uranyl phosphate crystals; this creates the possibility that these organisms could be used in bioremediation to decontaminate uranium-polluted water.[31][78] The proteobacterium Geobacter has also been shown to bioremediate uranium in ground water.[79] The mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices increases uranium content in the roots of its symbiotic plant.[80]
In nature, uranium(VI) forms highly soluble carbonate complexes at alkaline pH. This leads to an increase in mobility and availability of uranium to groundwater and soil from nuclear wastes which leads to health hazards. However, it is difficult to precipitate uranium as phosphate in the presence of excess carbonate at alkaline pH. A Sphingomonas sp. strain BSAR-1 has been found to express a high activity alkaline phosphatase (PhoK) that has been applied for bioprecipitation of uranium as uranyl phosphate species from alkaline solutions. The precipitation ability was enhanced by overexpressing PhoK protein in E. coli.[81]
Plants absorb some uranium from soil. Dry weight concentrations of uranium in plants range from 5 to 60 parts per billion, and ash from burnt wood can have concentrations up to 4 parts per million.[31] Dry weight concentrations of uranium in food plants are typically lower with one to two micrograms per day ingested through the food people eat.[31]
Production and mining Main article: Uranium mining Worldwide production of uranium in 2021 amounted to 48,332 tonnes, of which 21,819 t (45%) was mined in Kazakhstan. Other important urmom mining countries are Namibia (5,753 t), Canada (4,693 t), Australia (4,192 t), Uzbekistan (3,500 t), and Russia (2,635 t).[82]
Uranium ore is mined in several ways: by open pit, underground, in-situ leaching, and borehole mining (see uranium mining).[7] Low-grade uranium ore mined typically contains 0.01 to 0.25% uranium oxides. Extensive measures must be employed to extract the metal from its ore.[83] High-grade ores found in Athabasca Basin deposits in Saskatchewan, Canada can contain up to 23% uranium oxides on average.[84] Uranium ore is crushed and rendered into a fine powder and then leached with either an acid or alkali. The leachate is subjected to one of several sequences of precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange. The resulting mixture, called yellowcake, contains at least 75% uranium oxides U3O8. Yellowcake is then calcined to remove impurities from the milling process before refining and conversion.[85]
Commercial-grade uranium can be produced through the reduction of uranium halides with alkali or alkaline earth metals.[10] Uranium metal can also be prepared through electrolysis of KUF 5 or UF 4, dissolved in molten calcium chloride (CaCl 2) and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution.[10] Very pure uranium is produced through the thermal decomposition of uranium halides on a hot filament.[10]
It is estimated that 6.1 million tonnes of uranium exists in ore reserves that are economically viable at US$130 per kg of uranium,[87] while 35 million tonnes are classed as mineral resources (reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction).[88]
Australia has 28% of the world's known uranium ore reserves[87] and the world's largest single uranium deposit is located at the Olympic Dam Mine in South Australia.[89] There is a significant reserve of uranium in Bakouma, a sub-prefecture in the prefecture of Mbomou in the Central African Republic.[90]
Some uranium also originates from dismantled nuclear weapons.[91] For example, in 1993–2013 Russia supplied the United States with 15,000 tonnes of low-enriched uranium within the Megatons to Megawatts Program.[92]
An additional 4.6 billion tonnes of uranium are estimated to be dissolved in sea water (Japanese scientists in the 1980s showed that extraction of uranium from sea water using ion exchangers was technically feasible).[93][94] There have been experiments to extract uranium from sea water,[95] but the yield has been low due to the carbonate present in the water. In 2012, ORNL researchers announced the successful development of a new absorbent material dubbed HiCap which performs surface retention of solid or gas molecules, atoms or ions and also effectively removes toxic metals from water, according to results verified by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.[96][97]
In 2005, ten countries accounted for the majority of the world's concentrated uranium oxides: Canada (27.9%), Australia (22.8%), Kazakhstan (10.5%), Russia (8.0%), Namibia (7.5%), Niger (7.4%), Uzbekistan (5.5%), the United States (2.5%), Argentina (2.1%) and Ukraine (1.9%).[99] In 2008 Kazakhstan was forecast to increase production and become the world's largest supplier of uranium by 2009.[100][101] The prediction came true, and Kazakhstan does dominate the world's uranium market since 2010. In 2021, its share was 45.1%, followed by Namibia (11.9%), Canada (9.7%), Australia (8.7%), Uzbekistan (7.2%), Niger (4.7%), Russia (5.5%), China (3.9%), India (1.3%), Ukraine (0.9%), and South Africa (0.8%), with a world total production of 48,332 tonnes.[82] Most of uranium was produced not by conventional underground mining of ores (29% of production), but by in situ leaching (66%).[82][102]
In the late 1960s, UN geologists also discovered major uranium deposits and other rare mineral reserves in Somalia. The find was the largest of its kind, with industry experts estimating the deposits at over 25% of the world's then known uranium reserves of 800,000 tons.[103]
The ultimate available supply is believed to be sufficient for at least the next 85 years,[88] although some studies indicate underinvestment in the late twentieth century may produce supply problems in the 21st century.[104] Uranium deposits seem to be log-normal distributed. There is a 300-fold increase in the amount of uranium recoverable for each tenfold decrease in ore grade.[105] In other words, there is little high grade ore and proportionately much more low grade ore available.
Calcined uranium yellowcake, as produced in many large mills, contains a distribution of uranium oxidation species in various forms ranging from most oxidized to least oxidized. Particles with short residence times in a calciner will generally be less oxidized than those with long retention times or particles recovered in the stack scrubber. Uranium content is usually referenced to U 3O 8, which dates to the days of the Manhattan Project when U 3O 8 was used as an analytical chemistry reporting standard.[106]
Phase relationships in the uranium-oxygen system are complex. The most important oxidation states of uranium are uranium(IV) and uranium(VI), and their two corresponding oxides are, respectively, uranium dioxide (UO 2) and uranium trioxide (UO 3).[107] Other uranium oxides such as uranium monoxide (UO), diuranium pentoxide (U 2O 5), and uranium peroxide (UO 4·2H 2O) also exist.
The most common forms of uranium oxide are triuranium octoxide (U 3O 8) and UO 2.[108] Both oxide forms are solids that have low solubility in water and are relatively stable over a wide range of environmental conditions. Triuranium octoxide is (depending on conditions) the most stable compound of uranium and is the form most commonly found in nature. Uranium dioxide is the form in which uranium is most commonly used as a nuclear reactor fuel.[108] At ambient temperatures, UO 2 will gradually convert to U 3O 8. Because of their stability, uranium oxides are generally considered the preferred chemical form for storage or disposal.[108]
Salts of many oxidation states of uranium are water-soluble and may be studied in aqueous solutions. The most common ionic forms are U3+ (brown-red), U4+ (green), UO+ 2 (unstable), and UO2+ 2 (yellow), for U(III), U(IV), U(V), and U(VI), respectively.[109] A few solid and semi-metallic compounds such as UO and US exist for the formal oxidation state uranium(II), but no simple ions are known to exist in solution for that state. Ions of U3+ liberate hydrogen from water and are therefore considered to be highly unstable. The UO2+ 2 ion represents the uranium(VI) state and is known to form compounds such as uranyl carbonate, uranyl chloride and uranyl sulfate. UO2+ 2 also forms complexes with various organic chelating agents, the most commonly encountered of which is uranyl acetate.[109]
Unlike the uranyl salts of uranium and polyatomic ion uranium-oxide cationic forms, the uranates, salts containing a polyatomic uranium-oxide anion, are generally not water-soluble.
Carbonates The interactions of carbonate anions with uranium(VI) cause the Pourbaix diagram to change greatly when the medium is changed from water to a carbonate containing solution. While the vast majority of carbonates are insoluble in water (students are often taught that all carbonates other than those of alkali metals are insoluble in water), uranium carbonates are often soluble in water. This is because a U(VI) cation is able to bind two terminal oxides and three or more carbonates to form anionic complexes.
Effects of pH The uranium fraction diagrams in the presence of carbonate illustrate this further: when the pH of a uranium(VI) solution increases, the uranium is converted to a hydrated uranium oxide hydroxide and at high pHs it becomes an anionic hydroxide complex.
When carbonate is added, uranium is converted to a series of carbonate complexes if the pH is increased. One effect of these reactions is increased solubility of uranium in the pH range 6 to 8, a fact that has a direct bearing on the long term stability of spent uranium dioxide nuclear fuels.
Hydrides, carbides and nitrides Uranium metal heated to 250 to 300 °C (482 to 572 °F) reacts with hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Even higher temperatures will reversibly remove the hydrogen. This property makes uranium hydrides convenient starting materials to create reactive uranium powder along with various uranium carbide, nitride, and halide compounds.[111] Two crystal modifications of uranium hydride exist: an α form that is obtained at low temperatures and a β form that is created when the formation temperature is above 250 °C.[111]
Uranium carbides and uranium nitrides are both relatively inert semimetallic compounds that are minimally soluble in acids, react with water, and can ignite in air to form U 3O 8.[111] Carbides of uranium include uranium monocarbide (UC), uranium dicarbide (UC 2), and diuranium tricarbide (U 2C 3). Both UC and UC 2 are formed by adding carbon to molten uranium or by exposing the metal to carbon monoxide at high temperatures. Stable below 1800 °C, U 2C 3 is prepared by subjecting a heated mixture of UC and UC 2 to mechanical stress.[112] Uranium nitrides obtained by direct exposure of the metal to nitrogen include uranium mononitride (UN), uranium dinitride (UN 2), and diuranium trinitride (U 2N 3).[112]
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2023.03.30 06:34 Next_Speech5595 Finally, 100 Aircraft

Finally, 100 Aircraft submitted by Next_Speech5595 to AirlineManager4 [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:34 ayendeewhy For anyone interested, the MHA Fortnite collab is back in the shop today

For anyone interested, the MHA Fortnite collab is back in the shop today submitted by ayendeewhy to BokuNoHeroAcademia [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:27 AsparagusSad1885 LOOKING FOR OLD COMPUTER GAME , NEED HELP

I’m looking for an old computer game that I had played on the regular game websites( ones just like cool math games). It had to have been made anywhere from 2006/2013. I remember it being a pixel game, you used the up down side buttons to play(may or may not have been a puzzle/solving type of game). You were a man and may or may not had a flashlight in hand. (Big detail I remember)The setting was like an old mansion with very dark colors like dark red and purple. It also played ominous but good music in the back ground. There were multiples of this game I think around 4 games. If I’m not mistaken you could travel through portals or something of the sort to travel to different rooms. I also think it was a scary/thriller type game. I can’t remember much more, and I’m really wishing I did. If this rings any bells please reach out !
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2023.03.30 06:21 RandomATK w/f/l? kinda give the L energy

w/f/l? kinda give the L energy submitted by RandomATK to bloxfruits [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:18 TDS1108 Where did I go wrong?

Where did I go wrong?
I lost at the end to a Panther before I could repair my barrel and get the 15th kill on a panicking Ostwind. I’m waiting for the “skill issue”, go ahead 😂 but overall I’m fairly happy though having not experienced the Israeli tree until this week.
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2023.03.30 06:10 TinFoilRainHat Cable management advice?

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2023.03.30 06:05 AlberSaber Help Hypatia See Her Father Again After 4 Years of separation

Hypatia, a 10-year-old girl (stateless), has not seen her father, Alber Saber, for four years. In December 2019, Alber had to return to Egypt to take care of his sick mother, and due to COVID-19 lockdown in 2020, he couldn't return to Switzerland to care for Hypatia after his permit expired in May 2020.
In January 2021, Hypatia was expelled from school and transferred to a shelter as her mother was unable to take care of her. Despite her father's request in February 2021, after two years, migration refused to renew his permit, leaving the family with no choice but to hire a lawyer to challenge their decision in court before April 16, 2023. Unfortunately, the lawyer's fees are high, and Alber Saber is unable to afford them. It may even go to multiple courts, including the federal court and the European Human Rights Court. We need all the help we can get to be together again.
Hypatia's father is a human rights activist and blogger who has faced many problems with the Egyptian government. He has been working tirelessly to fight for human rights and freedom of expression, putting him at risk of being arrested by the Egyptian government or killed by extremists in Egypt. Therefore, it is crucial to reunite this family as soon as possible.
#Why Do They Need Our Help?
The family needs our help to raise funds for the lawyer's fees and associated costs to challenge the migration's decision in court. Hypatia's father has dedicated his life to fighting for human rights and freedom of expression, and he deserves to be reunited with his daughter.
#How Can We Help?
We can help by donating to the fund set up to pay for the lawyer's fees and associated costs or signing the petition to support their cause and raise awareness of their situation. Additionally, if you know of lawyers, NGOs, or activists who can volunteer their services for this case, please reach out to the family. We are reaching out to the community for help. Alber has helped many people, and we believe in the power of society to come together to help them be reunited. Every (help-sign-share-minute-dollar) counts, and we are grateful for any thing you can do. Together we can make a difference.
Every child deserves to be with their family, and we must help reunite this family by supporting their cause. Hypatia needs her father, and we can make a difference by donating to the fund or signing the petition to support their cause. Let's help them fight for human rights and family reunification.
We ask the Swiss authorities to allow Hypatia to see her father as soon as possible.
Petition : https://www.change.org/p/help-hypatia-see-her-father-again-after-4-years-of-absence/
GoFunfMe : https://www.gofundme.com/f/help-hypatia-see-her-father-again
PayPal : paypal.me/ALBERSABER
For more information, you can contact Alber Saber at E-mail: [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
Links about Alber Saber's case in Egypt:
[1] Alber Saber Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alber_Saber)
[2] Egypt Must Release Man on Trial for Criticizing Religion (https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/press-release/2012/10/egypt-must-release-man-trial-criticizing-religion/)
[3] World Report 2013: Egypt (https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2013/country-chapters/egypt)
[4] Humanists Are Being Persecuted Too (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jul/19/humanists-are-being-persecuted-too)
[5] Alber Saber Detained for an Online Video (AUCTV) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vnK7ijIC39s)
Links about some of Alber Saber's works: Many of Alber Saber’s works are temporarily hidden since 2019 due to the risk of legal persecution in Egypt, Until he can go out of Egypt.
[1] Inquisitions in Egypt 2014 (https://www.atheology.ca/inquisitions-egypt/)
[2] Free Hesham El Masry Atheism Is Not a Crime (https://www.change.org/p/free-hesham-el-masry-atheism-is-not-a-crime)
[3] Alber Saber’s Blog (https://web.archive.org/web/20190904025202/https://www.albersaber.com/)
[4] Alber Saber on YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/Albersaber85)
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2023.03.30 06:05 iraveallday Successful Install of Big Sur on an HP Compaq 6200 Pro SFF!

Successful Install of Big Sur on an HP Compaq 6200 Pro SFF! submitted by iraveallday to hackintosh [link] [comments]

2023.03.30 06:00 Hukumnama_Bot ੴ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥ • Sri Darbar Sahib Hukamnama • March 30, 2023

ੴ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥

One Universal Creator God. By The Grace Of The True Guru:

ਰਾਗੁ ਬਿਲਾਵਲੁ ਮਹਲਾ ੪ ਪੜਤਾਲ ਘਰੁ ੧੩ ॥

Raag Bilaaval, Fourth Mehl, Partaal, Thirteenth House:

ਬੋਲਹੁ ਭਈਆ ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮੁ ਪਤਿਤ ਪਾਵਨੋ ॥ ਹਰਿ ਸੰਤ ਭਗਤ ਤਾਰਨੋ ॥

O Siblings of Destiny, chant the Name of the Lord, the Purifier of sinners. The Lord emancipates his Saints and devotees.

ਹਰਿ ਭਰਿਪੁਰੇ ਰਹਿਆ ॥ ਜਲਿ ਥਲੇ ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮੁ ॥ ਨਿਤ ਗਾਈਐ ਹਰਿ ਦੂਖ ਬਿਸਾਰਨੋ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥

The Lord is totally permeating and pervading everywhere; the Name of the Lord is pervading the water and the land. So sing continuously of the Lord, the Dispeller of pain. 1Pause

ਹਰਿ ਕੀਆ ਹੈ ਸਫਲ ਜਨਮੁ ਹਮਾਰਾ ॥

The Lord has made my life fruitful and rewarding.

ਹਰਿ ਜਪਿਆ ਹਰਿ ਦੂਖ ਬਿਸਾਰਨਹਾਰਾ ॥

I meditate on the Lord, the Dispeller of pain.

ਗੁਰੁ ਭੇਟਿਆ ਹੈ ਮੁਕਤਿ ਦਾਤਾ ॥

I have met the Guru, the Giver of liberation.

ਹਰਿ ਕੀਈ ਹਮਾਰੀ ਸਫਲ ਜਾਤਾ ॥

The Lord has made my life's journey fruitful and rewarding.

ਮਿਲਿ ਸੰਗਤੀ ਗੁਨ ਗਾਵਨੋ ॥੧॥

Joining the Sangat, the Holy Congregation, I sing the Glorious Praises of the Lord. 1

ਮਨ ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮ ਕਰਿ ਆਸਾ ॥

O mortal, place your hopes in the Name of the Lord,

ਭਾਉ ਦੂਜਾ ਬਿਨਸਿ ਬਿਨਾਸਾ ॥

and your love of duality shall simply vanish.

ਵਿਚਿ ਆਸਾ ਹੋਇ ਨਿਰਾਸੀ ॥

One who, in hope, remains unattached to hope,

ਸੋ ਜਨੁ ਮਿਲਿਆ ਹਰਿ ਪਾਸੀ ॥

such a humble being meets with his Lord.

ਕੋਈ ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮ ਗੁਨ ਗਾਵਨੋ ॥

And one who sings the Glorious Praises of the Lord's Name

ਜਨੁ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਤਿਸੁ ਪਗਿ ਲਾਵਨੋ ॥੨॥੧॥੭॥੪॥੬॥੭॥੧੭॥

  • servant Nanak falls at his feet. 21746717
Guru Ramdas Ji • Raag Bilaaval • Ang 800
Thursday, March 30, 2023
Veervaar, 17 Chet, Nanakshahi 555
Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh, I am a Robot. Bleep Bloop.
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